Ren Zhengfei said what happened to Americas wrong bet on 5g?

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 Ren Zhengfei said what happened to Americas wrong bet on 5g?


According to the definition of 3GPP R15, 5gnr (5g air port, i.e. the communication interface between terminal and base station) includes two frequency ranges (FR). The frequency range of FR1 is 450MHz to 6GHz, also known as sub-6g. The frequency range of FR2 is 24GHz to 52ghz, and the electromagnetic wave growth part of this spectrum is millimeter level, so it is also called millimeter wave.

In the construction of 5g, the construction of 5g network in China and most countries in the world basically chooses FR1 frequency band. Compared with FR2, it has the advantages of low frequency, strong diffraction ability, good coverage effect and is the main spectrum of 5g at present. The part below 3GHz includes 2G, 3G and 4G spectrum in use in the current network. In the early stage of network construction, some resources of the old station address can be used to realize the rapid deployment of 5g network.

China builds 5g network in sub-6g frequency band, and the United States chooses to build 5g network in mmwave frequency band

However, the U.S. chose FR2 band as the entry point in 5g deployment, which brought difficulties to itself. From a technical point of view, millimeter wave band communication is limited by high-frequency devices, and the cost of integrated circuits supporting millimeter wave is higher. FR2 is located in a high frequency band, which can be divided into more spectrum resources, with large bandwidth, clean spectrum and small interference. However, the higher the frequency is, the smaller the coverage is, and more base stations are needed for deployment, which greatly increases the cost.

Bet millimeter wave, the United States is facing the dilemma of being isolated

Millimeter wave technology has been studied for more than a hundred years, which can be traced back to the end of the 19th century. But for a long time, millimeter wave is mainly used in military, radio astronomy and other fields. In recent years, with the development of 5g, millimeter wave has become one of the core technologies of 5g. The low frequency (sub-6) of 5g network supports the high-speed communication of n u00d7 1GBIT / s, while the millimeter wave spectrum supports the high-speed communication of n u00d7 10Gbit / s.

The United States chooses millimeter wave as the starting point of 5g network construction. On the one hand, the reason is that the United States has its technical advantages in developing millimeter wave. As early as 2015, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has planned four frequency bands of 28ghz, 37ghz, 39ghz and 64-71ghz to recommend the frequency band for 5g millimeter wave in the United States. In February last year, Qualcomm released the snapdragon x55, which supports three millimeter bands of 26ghz, 28ghz and 39ghz, as well as the TDD / FDD dual-mode band below 5gnr6ghz.

Almost all of the radio spectrum has been divided into military and civil, some of which are dedicated to television and radio broadcasting, as well as various navigation and satellite. Therefore, another reason why the U.S. chooses to develop the millimeter wave 5g technology is that the sub-6g frequency band pushed by China has been occupied by the military and satellite in the U.S. and cant be quickly released to the 5g network in a short time.

According to the report of Fortune magazine in October this year, at & T, Verizon and T-Mobile in the United States began to supply 5g networks to consumers in specific markets, but these networks are used for base stations with high-frequency spectrum. Technically speaking, the high-frequency spectrum provides the fastest Internet access speed, but the coverage area is limited. In China and most other parts of the world, 5g development is mainly concentrated in the medium and low frequency, because the base stations with lower spectrum can cover a wider range.

IHS Markit analyst Stephane teral said that at present, the US market requires one frequency, while the rest of the world requires another common frequency, which makes the US face isolation.

Chinas medium frequency 5g network threatens the U.S. to move to sub-6g

Last year, with the help of Google, the national defense innovation Commission conducted on-site tests on mmwave configuration standards for 5g networks in the United States and sub-6 configuration standards for 5g networks in China.

According to Googles test results, in the flat area of Los Angeles, California, the signal propagation difference between 28ghz (left) and 3.4GHz (right) deployment modes for base stations of the same height, with blue representing 100MB / s and red representing 1GB / s

The results show that mmwave can only provide gigabits per second for less than 4% of users, while sub-6g can provide gigabits per second for about 21% of users. In terms of providing 100m network speed, mmwave can only cover less than 12% of users, and sub-6g can cover 57%. The preliminary study did not even consider that human body and vehicle may block mmwave signal, which will further reduce the effectiveness of the network.

The prospect of 5g world dominated by Chinese companies has unsettled the US military. The U.S. Defense innovation Commission reported that U.S. forces deployed overseas may find themselves sending signals through 5g networks, and the entire 5g network is embedded with Chinese equipment, which will pose a serious threat to the operation and network security of the Department of defense.

In the face of China s sub-6G communication mode, which may become the global standard of Wan, the Advisory Committee of The Pentagon suggested that the U.S. government should shift its focus from mmWave and ask the U.S. Department of defense to share its 500MHz spectrum resources in the 4GHz band.

Trump pushes to release more spectrum, and plan the low, medium and high frequency spectrum resources as a whole

In the past few months, the FCC has launched a series of spectrum auctions, as it is eager to fulfill Trumps commitment to build an ultra-high speed Internet throughout the United States. In February last year, trump called on twitter for the United States to develop 5g or even 6G technology as soon as possible.

The key is to promote 5g construction and release spectrum resources. Also in April last year, trump said in a speech at the White House that the United States would release more wireless spectrum and simplify the licensing of communication facilities to gain leadership in 5g.

In September 2018, the Federal Communications Commission announced the 5g fast plan. According to the document, in the high frequency band, the FCC will auction the 24GHz, 28ghz, 37ghz, 39ghz and 47ghz bands, and will try to release the 26ghz and 42ghz spectrum resources.

FCC 5g express program

In the medium frequency band, the committee is considering releasing the spectrum resources of 2.5GHz, 3.5GHz and 3.7-4.2ghz to provide 844mhz bandwidth for the construction of 5g network. In addition, in the low-frequency segment, the committee will improve the use of 5g services in the low-frequency segment, with the goal of changing 600MHz, 800MHz and 900MHz.

Last month, the Federal Communications Commission launched a new round of millimeter wave spectrum auction. The auction range includes 37ghz higher frequency band (37.6ghz-38.6ghz), 39ghz (38.6ghz-40ghz) 47ghz band (47.2ghz-48.2ghz), a total of 3400mhz spectrum and 14100 licenses.

In 2020, the FCC will also conduct two mid band spectrum auctions, including the planned 3.5GHz spectrum auction in June and the 3.7ghz-4.2ghz spectrum auction in the second half of the year. The committee plans to auction 280mhz spectrum of 3.7ghz-4.2ghz band by the end of 2020, and reserve more than 200MHz spectrum for broadcasting.

Us giants fight for 5g spectrum control and fall into a war of words

According to Forbes magazine in September last year, T-Mobile, the third largest wireless operator in the United States, successfully acquired sprint, the fourth largest wireless operator in the United States, with a large amount of money, thus having a considerable 5g spectrum, which may accelerate the deployment of 5g networks in the United States.

However, the development of things is not so simple. Almost at the same time, the Financial Times revealed that the US governments 5g spectrum auction triggered disputes between technology giants such as apple, Microsoft, Facebook and Google and Ericsson.

Screenshot from Financial Times

As mentioned earlier, the FCC has been planning for the release of high, medium and low frequency spectrum resources to promote a series of spectrum sales. But the toughest problem is the band near 6GHz, which is open to WiFi by the Federal Communications Commission. The Financial Times said that the group of 11 technology companies including apple, Microsoft, Facebook and Google supported the decision of the committee, but Ericsson and other companies worried that the band might interfere with their existing communication satellites.

A similar public struggle broke out around the C-band (4-8ghz). Several broadcasters use the C-band to upload and download content via satellite, but the FCC wants to use it for 5g. But NOAA complains that opening up the 24 GHz frequency could interfere with its weather satellites.

Millimeter wave is still the key to establish the position of future communication field

On the whole, the 5g network millimeter wave industry chain is still in its infancy, and there is still a certain distance to mature business. As for millimeter wave, the biggest objection is that the high-frequency signal has a short propagation distance and is easily affected by objects, so a large number of base stations are required for dense coverage. Such high construction cost is difficult for operators to bear. However, the technical advantages of millimeter wave cannot be ignored.

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From the perspective of bandwidth, the maximum available bandwidth of LTE below 6GHz band is only 100MHz, which means that the data rate can only meet 1Gbps of downlink, but the maximum bandwidth of millimeter wave band mobile applications reaches 400MHz, and the transmission speed reaches 10Gbps or more. Secondly, from the perspective of spectrum resources, millimeter wave frequency band is more abundant. With the rapid development of communication field in the early stage, the spectrum resource in 30ghz is almost exhausted. Almost all operators in the world are facing the problem of spectrum resource shortage. The conflict between LTE and 5g is more and more obvious. Therefore, the uncultivated millimeter wave is bound to become the new continent in the field of mobile communication in the future.

Millimeter wave technology may become a hot technology in the future. Taking the air network (IOS) as an example, it is becoming a new research hotspot after the Internet of things by using the low and medium orbit satellite network to achieve high-speed coverage without dead angle in the world. Developed countries such as Europe and the United States have begun to plan and deploy high-speed air network. The key to develop high-speed air network is high-speed data transmission and networking technology. In order to support such high throughput and gigabits per second data transmission, millimeter wave communication technology with large bandwidth becomes the first choice. In addition, compared with the microwave low frequency, the volume and weight of millimeter wave system and antenna will be greatly reduced.

In North America, operators such as at & T and Verizon are actively engaged in the development of high-frequency 5g technology, among which at & T acquired the frequency band resources near 39ghz through the acquisition of fibertower, while Verizon, with the support of national instruments (Ni) Co., Ltd., demonstrated the worlds first real-time 28ghz verizon5g wireless prototype system in March 2017. In Asia, both NTT DoCoMo, a Japanese operator, and KT, a South Korean telecom company, put high frequency into the technical test of 5g network. It is worth noting that in terms of main equipment, since North America and Japan and South Korea are at the forefront of millimeter wave system research at present, the frequency bands of manufacturers equipment are mainly North America and Japan and South Korea.

Medium frequency networking is the foundation of 5g network construction in China, but millimeter wave research is an important link in the pursuit of higher speed and wider bandwidth. The Ministry of industry and information technology also approved 24.75-27.5ghz and 37-42.5ghz for 5g technology R & D and testing in July 2017. Experts pointed out that the spectrum is the most fundamental lifeline of the mobile communication industry. To promote the development of 5g millimeter wave industry, it is necessary to make clear the spectrum planning and division of millimeter wave in China.

Screenshot from: Ministry of industry and information technology

Although Ren Zhengfei previously called Huawei a bet on CMW, it also has great potential in the field of MMW. At last years developer conference, Huawei showed that Huawei uses the folding screen mobile phone Huawei imatex to play 4K HD video online through millimeter wave technology and base station communication. The 5g multi-mode chip Baron 5000 on the mobile phone supports not only sub-6g low frequency, but also millimeter wave 26ghz and 28ghz high frequency, which shows that Huawei also has technical advantages in 5g millimeter wave field.

In addition, from the 5g Innovation Summit held in early November 2019, it was learned that in addition to the terminal field, in terms of communication equipment manufacturing, Huawei and ZTE have now completed the function, RF and outfield performance of 5g millimeter wave key technology test, which also favorably supports Chinas milliwave planning work.

(function() {(window. Slotbydup = window. Slotbydup| []). Push ({ID: u5811557, container: ssp_, async: true});)) (); conclusion when trump visited Apples factory in Austin, Texas recently, he asked cook whether Apple could participate in the construction of 5g in the United States, which was mercilessly satirized as ignorance by the media. In fact, at present, Huawei, ZTE, Nokia and Ericsson are the main suppliers of 5g devices in the world, while Qualcomm is the only 5g chip manufacturer in the United States. There is no equipment supplier, coupled with the immature millimeter wave industry chain of 5g network, and there are difficulties in commercial use, which makes 5g construction in the United States facing a dilemma. However, as far as millimeter wave technology itself is concerned, its future value cannot be denied. In the construction of medium and low frequency 5g network, China has really seized the opportunity, but in order to obtain higher rate and wider bandwidth, millimeter wave research is still the key. Source: responsible editor of observer network: Zhou Xinyi ufe63 nb12002

Concluding remarks

Trump recently visited Apples factory in Austin, Texas, and asked cook if he could let Apple participate in the construction of 5g in the United States, which was mercilessly satirized as ignorance by the media. In fact, at present, Huawei, ZTE, Nokia and Ericsson are the main suppliers of 5g devices in the world, while Qualcomm is the only 5g chip manufacturer in the United States. There is no equipment supplier, coupled with the immature millimeter wave industry chain of 5g network, and there are difficulties in commercial use, which makes 5g construction in the United States facing a dilemma.

However, as far as millimeter wave technology itself is concerned, its future value cannot be denied. In the construction of medium and low frequency 5g network, China has really seized the opportunity, but in order to obtain higher rate and wider bandwidth, millimeter wave research is still the key.