Xiake Island: chaos, India ushered in 2020

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 Xiake Island: chaos, India ushered in 2020


On December 11 last year, 25 people died in Assam, the northeast state with the most complex ethnic relations, after riots broke out first and spread to about 10 states (equivalent to provinces). Indias tourism industry has also been hit hard, with officials saying the number of tourists to the Taj Mahal fell 60% year-on-year in December.

The riot began with an immigration bill passed by Indias parliament on December 10 last year. According to the act, among the illegal immigrants who came to India before 2015, Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Zoroastrians and Catholics can obtain Indian nationality, with the exception of Muslims.

Why did the modi government push for a bill suspected of anti Muslim? How does the Indian government respond?

Police use sticks to disperse protesters (source: Reuters)

bill

The controversial bill is an amendment to Indias Citizenship Act of 1955. The bill eases the Naturalization conditions for large numbers of illegal immigrants from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan, and provides for the above-mentioned six categories of believers who have lived in India for more than five years to apply for legal status.

So why treat only these six kinds of believers and exclude Muslims (and atheists)? Indias official statement is that the original intention of the amendment is to provide asylum for people who may suffer religious persecution in neighboring countries. The population of these three countries is mainly Muslim, and there will be no persecution of Muslims.

This reason may sound reasonable at first, but its not strange. Where is the blame?

Residents of northeast India, such as Assam, which was the first to riot, rejected all illegal immigrants. Because of their geographical location, they have directly suffered millions of illegal immigrants from neighboring countries in recent decades. As a result, local security has deteriorated and even the ethnic structure has changed.

The opposition Congress Party pointed out that the bill violated the secular and equal principles of Indias constitution, took religious belief as the practice of assessing citizenship, and even shook the foundation of the country and the constitution.

As soon as the amendment was passed, there were strong protests and riots, and major Indian cities such as New Delhi, Calcutta, Mumbai, Bangalore and Hyderabad were not spared. Arson, smash, fast, block traffic, attack police, tear gas, shoot The bridge sections that are common in these riots are happening.

In the face of the surging protests, the Indian government has no intention of backing down and has shown no mercy on illegal demonstrations and violence. According to a video circulating on the Internet, Indian police armed with batons will rush directly into the protesting crowd, disperse the crowd by beating and arrest the violent elements.

It is quite surprising that the government of India has also taken unconventional measures. For some areas with serious riots, the government sent out troops to prohibit the assembly of more than four people by quoting the laws of the colonial era; in many places of New Delhi, the capital cut off the network, several major telecommunication operators shut down voice, SMS and Internet services in accordance with the governments regulations for many times.

So far, at least 1200 people have been arrested, 5500 detained and 25 killed in the riots.

ough

Modi, who signed the bill and made it effective, once again backed the Citizenship Act Amendment at a rally on December 15, saying that the passage of the amendment by Parliament was 1000 percent correct..

Modi explained that the amendment will not have an impact on Indian nationals, including Muslims; the government will not ask each others religious beliefs when implementing major policies, and will not in the future.

The Indian government says it is to screen illegal immigrants who have escaped from Bangladesh. The opposition pointed out that the vast majority of Bangladesh is Muslim, and the system is still aimed at Muslims.

Adding to the flames, on December 24, as the unrest continued, the Indian government approved another national census plan, preparing to establish an identity database for each resident next year. Opponents believe that the plan is to push the national register of citizens system to the whole country.

Since there are so many objections, why does the modi government still vigorously promote more relevant plans? Lin minwang, deputy director of Fudan Universitys South Asia Research Center, told Dao Shu that he was not surprised by the recent performance of the Indian government and that promoting such a bill is a long-term policy of the Indian party.

According to Lin minwang, the Indian government canceled the autonomy of Muslim dominated Kashmir last August, and the Indian high court awarded the disputed land in Ayodhya to Hinduism in November. The internal logic of this series of events is the same.

In his first term, modi focused mainly on economic reform and made remarkable achievements at one time. However, the data shows that Indias economy has fallen for six consecutive quarters, and its GDP in the third quarter of 2019 only grew by 4.5% year-on-year, the lowest level in six years.

This shows that the previous reform achievements are not as effective as the outside world imagined. In his second term, which began last year, with unstoppable authority, modi turned to solve domestic political problems, following the partys consistent logic.

This logic is the ideology and political philosophy of the Indian Party represented by modi - Hindu nationalism.

Assam in turmoil

hought

What is Hindu nationalism? This has to start with the innate problems that existed when India was founded.

We know that for a long time, Indias society has been pluralistic and divided, and more than one billion people have been separated by ethnic, caste, religion, class, tribe and other factors. The political performance is that the whole nation lacks cohesion, the interests of ethnic groups and local areas have long been superior to national interests, and it is difficult to promote various reforms at the central level.

It can be said that for India, the split of its people and the lack of its national capacity have been the biggest obstacles to the realization of its great power aspirations.

Since the founding of the peoples Republic of China in 1947, generations of Indian elites have been looking for a good way to integrate their people. Indias founding elites introduced western democracy and federalism in their political system, and chose secularism and nationalism in their political thoughts to realize national reconstruction. However, the practice proved that the effect was not satisfactory.

As a rising star in Indian politics, the Indian peoples party, founded in 1980, held high the banner of Hindu nationalism and constantly expanded its power, gaining the support of more and more Indian people. In the 2014 parliamentary election, the Indian peoples party won in one fell swoop and was able to form a cabinet government. Its candidate, Modi, was elected as prime minister. In the general election in June last year, the Indian peoples party won an overwhelming victory again, and modi was re elected.

The victory of the Indian Party lies in its firm grasp of Hindu voters, who make up 85% of the countrys population and account for more than one billion people. In the view of the Indian party, regardless of the Muslim group, which accounts for 15% of the countrys population, other nationalities, castes, classes and tribes can all be based on Hindu identity, so as to maximize the integration and mobilization of Indian people.

Protesting Indian people

Therefore, in the process of public opinion and policy-making, the Indian party strengthened the national identity of Hinduism through various means, and strengthened the internal cohesion of Hindus by isolating Muslims. The Indian party even declared that India is the homeland of all Hindus in the world, so as to further enhance its prestige among voters.

When he first ran in 2014, modi promised in his campaign platform that India would be the natural home of all persecuted Hindus. The adoption of the amendment to the Citizenship Act finally fulfilled his promise that tens of thousands of Hindu refugees would be granted Indian citizenship.

At the end of last years election, modi offered a rather dramatic trick: he climbed the peak of 3500 meters in Shanghai and meditated all night alone in a cave. After the social media sent out the photo of his meditation, it immediately got the headlines of the media all over India and the world, as well as the popularity of the Indian people.

(function() {(window. Slotbydup = window. Slotbydup| []). Push ({ID: u5811557, container: ssp_, async: true});)) (); it is the repeatedly effective religious card that gives the Indian party the confidence to push forward the bill and take a tough attitude to face the protests. So, can the Indian government, by means of tough measures, quell the unrest? In Lin minwangs view, the current situation is difficult to calm down in a short period of time, because the momentum of the riots has evolved into a liquidation of the long-term policies of modi government by some groups in India. Their discontent, whether Muslim, intellectual or the forces of northeast state, broke out. For Modi, it may have been unexpected that the bill could cause such great social unrest. And India has once again entered a crossroads: is it a secular India or a religious India? Source: Xiake Island Author: Yu Wenlei, editor in charge: Xiao qigou nn6799

It is the repeatedly effective religious card that gives the party the confidence to push forward the bill and take a tough attitude to face the protests.

So, can the Indian government, by means of tough measures, quell the unrest?

In Lin minwangs view, the current situation is difficult to calm down in a short period of time, because the momentum of the riots has evolved into a liquidation of the long-term policies of modi government by some groups in India. Their discontent, whether Muslim, intellectual or the forces of northeast state, broke out.

For Modi, it may have been unexpected that the bill could cause such great social unrest.

And India has once again entered a crossroads: is it a secular India or a religious India?