Change-4 achieved the first soft landing on the back of the moon. Looking back to 2019, at the beginning of the new year, good news came from the far away moon. On January 3, change-4 successfully landed in the pre selected landing area near 177.6 u00b0 E and 45.5 u00b0 s on the back of the moon, and sent back the worlds first close shot image of the back of the moon through the magpie bridge relay star.
This mission realized the first soft landing and patrol survey of the lunar back of the human probe, and the first relay communication between the lunar back and the earth, which opened a new chapter of the human lunar exploration. Change-4 not only represents the first successful landing on the back of the moon, but also breaks the world record of 49 years in dust cover, becoming the longest working lunar probe on the moon.
The Long March 5 rocket successfully returned. More than two years after the failure of the last launch, Chinas largest new generation launch vehicle, Long March 5, was launched again on December 27, and successfully put the practical 20 satellite into orbit. All went well, and the comeback was a success.
As the launch vehicle with the largest takeoff mass, the thickest core diameter and the strongest carrying capacity in active service in China, the long five is also affectionately known as the fat five. It is 57 meters tall, 5 meters in diameter and 870 tons in take-off weight. Its maximum payload in low earth orbit is 25 tons, which is equivalent to sending 16 cars into space at a time. Lunar exploration III, Mars exploration, manned space station In the future, many aerospace projects are expected to implement it.
2019 becomes the super year of Chinas aerospace industry. In addition to the most important drama at the beginning of the year, Chinas space fever has not decreased throughout the year. In terms of launch capability, in June, China successfully carried out the launch technology test of launch vehicle at sea for the first time, becoming one of the few countries in the world with the capability of launching rocket at sea; in December, the fast boat rocket launched twice in the same launch site within six hours, setting a new record in Chinas aerospace industry. In terms of space infrastructure, in mid December, the deployment of core constellation of beidou-3 global system was completed, laying a solid foundation for the realization of global system networking in 2020.
In 2019, Chinas annual space launches reached 34, surpassing 27 in the United States and 25 in Russia. After 2018, China once again occupied the first place in the world. This means that Chinas ability and level of entering space have been greatly improved, and the dream of space power is getting closer and closer to us.
Black hole becomes net red, and basic research results explode
The first picture of a black hole was obtained. Which is the hottest picture in 2019? Maybe youll vote for it. It is the first time that human beings have witnessed the real appearance of black holes. On April 10, astronomers from all over the world, including China, announced the first major achievement of the event horizon telescope (EHT) project: the first black hole photo ever obtained by mankind.
This is an extraordinary scientific research achievement completed by a team of more than 200 researchers. Shanghai Observatory took the lead in organizing and coordinating domestic scholars to participate in the EHT project cooperation through the cooperation agency. Scientists have joined forces with eight radio observatories all over the world to simulate the event horizon telescope, a telescope with an exit diameter equal to the diameter of the earth, by means of very long baseline interferometry, so that the black hole that engulfs everything can appear in front of mankind.
Discover the king of black holes, refresh human cognition. There are many accidents in scientific discovery. At the beginning of 2016, Chinese scientists began to use LAMOST, a large area multi-target optical fiber spectrum astronomical telescope, to observe more than 3000 binary objects, one of which is a B-type star with walking and pulling wind, and then found that its partner is a black hole, with 70 times the mass of the sun, which has refreshed the recognition of the upper limit of the mass of the star level black hole Know.
The discovery of this stellar black hole with the largest mass so far has opened a new era of searching for black holes by using LAMOSTs Sky Survey advantage. The story of the king of spectrum discovering the king of black hole will also be a good story in the field of astronomy.
AI, quantum Cutting edge science and technology
Invention of the worlds first heterogeneous fusion brain chip. On August 1, the worlds first heterogeneous fusion brain computing chip developed by Tsinghua University appeared on the cover of Nature magazine. The chip combines brain like computing and machine learning based on computer science to promote the research and development of artificial general intelligence.
Previously, due to the incompatibility between the two technical routes of brain like computing and machine learning, the development of artificial general intelligence was greatly limited. And the new chip, which was born this time, cleverly integrated two routes, so it was named Tianji core. A self driving bicycle driven by the chip can realize self balance, dynamic perception, target detection, tracking, automatic obstacle avoidance, obstacle passing, voice understanding, autonomous decision-making and other functions, showing the potential of future artificial intelligence platform.
Tianji chip is a technical achievement independently developed by China. The research team of heterogeneous fusion thinking routing project first proposed it. In the two hot frontier fields of artificial intelligence and chips, Chinese scientists once again won a place.
It is the first time to verify the long-distance two field quantum key distribution. In recent years, China is almost one of the best in the field of quantum communication. In 2019, Chinas quantum team once again set a new world record. Previously, due to the loss of communication fiber and the noise of detector, the quantum key distribution system can only obtain high bit rate within 100 km. At present, the farthest coding distance is 404 kilometers that Pan Jianweis team realized in 2016.
A new quantum key distribution scheme, the two field quantum key distribution scheme, cleverly utilizes the characteristics of single photon interference, so that the code rate of quantum key distribution can maintain a high level in a long distance. In 2019, Professor Pan Jianwei of the University of science and technology and other scientists completed the two field quantum key distribution experiment in a 300 km real environment fiber. The results were officially published in September and are expected to be the basis of a new generation of quantum key distribution between long-distance cities.
Treatment of AIDS, analysis of African swine fever Rapid development of life science
Gene editing stem cells in the treatment of AIDS. Treatment of AIDS is becoming more and more accessible. According to a study released in September, Chinese scientists have genetically edited human hematopoietic stem cells, inactivated their CCR5 gene, and transplanted them into HIV infected patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The HIV positive Chinese man performed well after surgery and was observed for 19 months. Although HIV is not completely eliminated, there are no worrying side effects of inducing cancer or genetic damage. The scientists who led the research were also selected as the top 10 scientific figures of nature in 2019, becoming the only Chinese scholars on the list.
The research comes from a chance discovery by scientists more than a decade ago that a patient with both AIDS and leukemia was undergoing a bone marrow transplant, which miraculously cured the two diseases. However, it is difficult to copy this miracle. In fact, it is very fragile for stem cells to enter the new environment. If the stem cells after gene editing are difficult to survive, the patients will be at risk. On the basis of early animal experiments, the Chinese team explored a variety of conditions to establish a pretreatment method for hematopoietic stem cells capable of gene editing, which not only makes it active, but also does not destroy its multi-functional potential, stability and viability, so that the T cells after gene editing have stronger anti enemy ability.
It is the first time to analyze the structure of African swine fever virus. African swine fever is a nightmare for pig farmers. The incidence and mortality of swine infection is as high as 100%. At present, there is no effective vaccine at home and abroad. In October, science published a paper by Chinese scholars to analyze the fine three-dimensional structure of African classical swine fever virus. This is a large icosahedral virus, which consists of five layers: genome, core shell, bilayer inner membrane, capsid and outer membrane. The virus particles contain more than 30000 protein subunits and are assembled into spherical particles with a diameter of about 260 nm.
In the past, blind people touch the elephant, now we see the whole picture of the virus, and vaccine research and development can be more targeted. This is the first time to analyze the structure of African classical swine fever virus in the world, which provides an important clue for revealing the mechanism of African classical swine fever virus invading host cells and evading and antagonizing host antiviral immunity, and lays a solid foundation for developing a new type of African classical swine fever vaccine with good effect and high safety.
5g commercial, scientific and technological innovation board opened Acceleration of industrial reform
5g commercial license is officially issued. On June 6, the Ministry of industry and information technology officially issued 5g business license to China Telecom, China Mobile, China Unicom and China Radio and television, and China officially entered the first year of 5g business. 5g has the characteristics of high speed, low delay and high reliability, which is the development direction of the new generation of information technology and the important foundation of digital economy.
In terms of technical standards, 5g concept, application scenarios and technical indicators advocated by China have been included in the definition of 5g of ITU; in terms of industrial development, China took the lead in launching 5g technology R & D experiments, accelerating the process of 5g equipment R & D and industrialization. At present, 5g if system equipment, terminal chips and smart phones in China are in the first echelon of the global industry and have the conditions for commercial deployment. It is worth noting that the three operators have already built 5g base stations in various places, with huge investment. The issuance of 5g license plate is conducive to seizing the opportunity of the development of digital economy.
With the issuance of 5g license plate, Chinas 5g construction will be greatly accelerated, which will not only affect Chinas economic pattern, but also affect the global 5g development pattern to a large extent.
The science and technology innovation board starts the market with gongs. This is a historic moment for Chinas capital market. On July 22, the science and technology innovation board opened in Shanghai Stock Exchange. Chinas capital market is thus open to science and technology innovation enterprises. In the future competition of international scientific and technological strength, scientific and Technological Innovation Board will become the big granary for Chinese hard science and technology enterprises to continuously supplement the follow-up energy.
As a new incremental sector, science and Technology Innovation Board focuses on supporting high-tech industries and strategic emerging industries. Facing the four major fields of new generation information technology, new materials, biology and high-end equipment manufacturing. The establishment of science and technology innovation board and the introduction of registration system in Chinas stock market for the first time are generally regarded as the most significant reform in the issuance and listing system since the establishment of Chinas A-share market. Science and technology innovation board bears the ardent expectations of all parties for the capital market in promoting scientific and technological innovation and economic transformation and development. Some commentators believe that the opening of the science and Technology Innovation Board will attract more venture capital, stimulate the development of science and technology innovation industry, and inject surging power into Chinas march towards high-quality development.
2019 just waved goodbye, 2020 is coming to us. With the opening of the new years curtain, a series of more exciting plans have been waiting in 2020: Beidou global system is about to be built, change-5 is ready to launch, the Mars probe is about to start, and the construction of the space station will take the first step We have reason to believe that in the new year, more and more major innovations and breakthroughs are brewing in the field of science and technology in China.