The high-energy metal hydrogen is dozens of times more powerful than TNT. It needs diamonds to make it

category:Hot
 The high-energy metal hydrogen is dozens of times more powerful than TNT. It needs diamonds to make it


To change hydrogen from a gaseous state to a metallic state, its very simple to say that its pressurized, but its not simple at all. It needs a very high pressure.

In the 1930s, two Nobel laureates predicted that the pressure was about 25gpa, or 25000000000 Pa. however, the fact shows that the estimation is far from satisfactory. Scientists now give the answer that the pressure needed is 500gpa, 20 times of the original estimate, while the pressure in the core is only 360gpa.

As a contrast, TNT explosive explosion produces a pressure equivalent to 100000 atmospheres, only more than 10GPa, so it can be imagined how difficult it is to prepare metal hydrogen.

At present, the means that human beings can create the highest pressure is undoubtedly nuclear explosion. It is estimated that the maximum pressure in the nuclear explosion center can reach tens or even tens of billions of atmospheres, but this destructive high pressure is of no use. Any matter will turn into gas in the nuclear explosion center.

In the natural state, metal hydrogen may exist in the core of some gaseous planets, such as Jupiter and Saturn. Only in such a huge planet can there be such high pressure.

In order to manufacture metal hydrogen in the laboratory, we need a kind of static instrument to produce high pressure, which is diamond anvil. It is a pair of diamond that has been carefully cut and polished. The two tips are squeezed each other under high pressure, and finally can produce a pressure of 400gpa. Under such a huge pressure, the hydrogen atom changes phase and becomes a simple material of hydrogen element. Protons and electrons form a liquid state If the proton forms a crystal structure, it becomes a solid metal hydrogen.

Schematic diagram of diamond anvil

Metal hydrogen can maintain metastable state under normal condition, that is to say, when hydrogen transforms into metal state under ultra-high pressure, the pressure returns to normal, and it will remain metal state. Just as graphite becomes diamond under high pressure, it will not change back to graphite under normal condition.

This is of great significance because metal hydrogen has many strange properties.

First of all, it is a kind of high energy material.

The energy density of metal hydrogen is the highest in conventional materials, 35 times that of TNT explosive. Moreover, the detonation speed of metal hydrogen is 15000 M / s, and the detonation speed of heisuojin, a powerful explosive known for its power, is only 8750 M / s. It can be seen that the energy density and ferocity of metal hydrogen are unparalleled in the world. Even the total nitrogen anion salt, which is called real N2 bomb, is far less powerful Metal hydrogen.

The N2 bomb in EVA is a kind of fictitious weapon with power comparable to atomic bomb

At the same time, metal hydrogen is also an excellent rocket fuel, with a specific impulse of more than 1700 seconds. At present, the specific impulse of solid propellant is 290 seconds, and that of liquid propellant is 453 seconds. If the rocket uses metal hydrogen as the propellant, it can realize the single-stage rocket into orbit, which is the only scene in science fiction movies.

Second, the metal hydrogen has the superconductivity at high temperature.

According to research, the superconducting temperature of metal hydrogen is more than 160K, which is expected to exceed 195k of dry ice temperature. Scientists hope that they can use it to realize superconductivity at room temperature. If successful, it will undoubtedly be another leap of human civilization.

However, the preparation of metal hydrogen in the laboratory at this stage is only the first step in the Long March, far from its practical application.

Because the amount of metal hydrogen produced in the laboratory is too small to be observed even with advanced instruments, mass production of metal hydrogen is believed to be a big engineering problem.

Here we want to talk about the diamond to top to anvil device, which is actually very small in size and can be lifted with one hand.

The core of the diamond is the two diamonds under pressure. Although it is not the diamond that needs high purity and perfect cutting as some articles say, it actually uses artificial diamond, but the cost is also quite high.

(function() {(window. Slotbydup = window. Slotbydup| []). Push ({ID: 6374560, container: ssp_, size: 300250, display: inlay fix, async: true});))); especially diamond is a kind of consumable, because under super high pressure, hydrogen will penetrate into the diamond surface to produce hydrogen fragmentation. Previously, there was a media interview with a domestic metal hydrogen research group. They did 100 experiments, which cost hundreds of diamonds, and the estimated cost is not a small number. But science is just like this. When it was just started, it was always very difficult. For example, in the early 19th century, the manufacturing cost of aluminum was so high that it was even more expensive than gold. But when the electrolytic aluminum technology appeared, aluminum became a cheap metal. After all, aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earths crust. The content of hydrogen in the earth is also very rich, and hydrogen can be obtained by electrolyzing water. If the manufacturing of metal hydrogen becomes as cheap and simple as aluminum in the future, the impact on the world will be immeasurable - of course, we hope its better not to be used in military. Source: Wang Yitan Bing, editor in charge: Yao Wenguang, nn1682

In particular, diamond is a kind of consumable, because under super-high pressure, hydrogen will penetrate into the diamond surface to produce hydrogen fragmentation. Previously, there was a media interview with a domestic metal hydrogen research group. They did 100 experiments, which cost hundreds of diamonds, and the estimated cost is not a small number.

But science is just like this. When it was just started, it was always very difficult. For example, in the early 19th century, the manufacturing cost of aluminum was so high that it was even more expensive than gold. But when the electrolytic aluminum technology appeared, aluminum became a cheap metal. After all, aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earths crust.

The content of hydrogen in the earth is also very rich, and hydrogen can be obtained by electrolyzing water. If the manufacturing of metal hydrogen becomes as cheap and simple as aluminum in the future, the impact on the world will be immeasurable - of course, we hope its better not to be used in military.