The US made F-4 ghost II fighter bomber is undoubtedly a good plane, but it may not look like a beautiful plane. Its big and heavy, with a special shape, so its called flying anvil or flying brick by pilots.
The F-4 is rough and bulky.
The US Air Forces Thunderbird stunt team and the Navys Blue Angel stunt team both used the F-4 as a performing aircraft. Because it is equipped with two powerful general electric j79 series engines, when the F-4 is in a dense formation and low altitude, it will produce a slightly shaky roar on the ground. As an efficient war machine, it will be a strong shock to people, which is hard to forget.
The dense formation of f-4j fighters of the Blue Angel flight performance team of the U.S. Navy opened at low altitude, showing the strong air control strength of the U.S. Army in that era.
Because of its heavy shape and powerful power, the F-4 is also known as the triumph of thrust over aerodynamics. During the service of F-4, the main opponents were Soviet made fighters such as MiG-21, MiG-19 and MiG-17. Because of their outstanding achievements in the Vietnam War, F-4 was given the nickname of the worlds leading dealer of MIG machine parts.
Now 61 years have passed since the first F-4 test flight. By 1981, Japans Mitsubishi delivered the last F-4 to the air, which has produced 5195. So far, it is the largest supersonic fighter in the United States, and the second largest fighter in the West.
At present, there are still hundreds of F-4s in service all over the world, some of which still play an important role. However, with the aging of the body and the need of upgrading the fighter equipment, the F-4 is gradually fading out of our sight.
The F-4 originated from the shipborne supersonic fighter bomber selection project issued by the U.S. Navy in 1952. On May 27, 1958, the first yf4h-1 fighter successfully flew first. Half a year later, the U.S. Navy announced that f-4h-1 would be the next generation of carrier based aircraft. In October 1961, the f-4h-1 fighter officially served in the Navy.
F-4h-1 first flight, 1958. In the early stage of F-4, the rear cabin cover was very small, and the weapon operator had almost no external vision. In the later stage, the problem was solved by heightening the cockpit.
The U.S. Navy uses the f-4h-1 as a shipborne interceptor, which mainly undertakes the air defense intercepting task of the aircraft carrier formation, and uses it as a platform to test the over the horizon air combat equipment and tactics that were still in the exploratory stage at that time. At that time, the U.S. Department of defense was promoting the equipment generalization project, so it was hoped that the U.S. air force, navy and Marine Corps would purchase the F-4 as the main fighter.
Although the second generation were not willing to equip the fighter specially developed for the first generation, the air force was also in the transition stage from the first generation to the second generation, and there was no ready-made fighter available. So the air force grudgingly borrowed an F-4 from the Navy under the impetus of then Defense Secretary McNamara, and the result was satisfactory.
So the U.S. Air Force chose the F-4 as its main fighter in 1963. It is not common for the air force, the Navy and the Marine Corps to choose the same fighter as the main aircraft in the history of the US Army. It can be said that the F-4 was the general existence of the F-35 in those days.
In September 1962, the U.S. military redefined the naming rules for fighter planes. The F-4 of the navy was unified as f-4a and f-4b, while the F-4C of the air force was unified as F-4C. Among them, f-4a is a transitional model, only 47 are produced. The f-4b is the first type of large-scale equipment in the Navy type F-4, while the F-4C is a special air force fighter modified on the basis of the B type, which is equipped with engine and air refueling device.
The F-4 fighter equipped on the U.S. aircraft carrier Xiaoying is painted in white on the left side and dark green on the right side, so as to enhance the concealment in the jungle environment.
Unlike the Navy, the air force wants the F-4 to be a multi-purpose fighter with both air and ground attack capabilities. Therefore, on the basis of F-4C, an / apq-109 fire control system is replaced, an / asg-22 bombing sight, an / asq-91 bomb dropping computer and an / asn-63 inertial navigation system are added, so that it has the ability of accurate bombing to the ground for the first time. This type of aircraft is called f-4d. The f-4d is a pioneer of the modern multi-purpose fighter aircraft of the U.S. air force. It can use air-to-air missiles to carry out air combat missions after dropping tons of bombs.
The frequent improvement of F-4 is closely related to the prediction of air combat mode by the US Army at that time. From the end of the 1950s to the middle of the 1960s, the mainstream fighter design ideas of the U.S. military believed that the next generation of fighters should focus on improving high-speed performance and range, highlighting multi-purpose capabilities, canceling air guns, taking missiles as the basis of air combat weapons, etc.
The theory of missile omnipotence, the theory of machine gun Uselessness and the theory of pilot Uselessness are all detours in the exploration process of that year. This is the F-4 cannon.
According to this idea, the F-4 can fly at a maximum speed of two or even three mach. The aircraft is full of electronic equipment for air combat and ground bombing. In order to operate these complex instruments, it is designed to be a two seat type, so as to add an operator. The fighter plane is obviously developing towards the direction of heavy-duty, and it also directly cancels the air gun. But later facts show that this is actually a detour.
During the Vietnam War, the U.S. military found that the actual situation of air combat was quite different from the expected situation. For the reasons of identification of enemy and ourselves and instability of early missile performance, F-4 could hardly exert the range advantage of airborne aim-7 sparrow medium range missile, and air combat often took place at close range. In the dog fight with the light and flexible MIG machine, there is not much advantage in the performance of the F-4, which has no air gun and is bulky.
The f-4d is equipped with four gun pods, which looks like an explosion of combat effectiveness. However, the shooting stability and calibration difficulty of the gun pod are far greater than that of the fixed gun, and the actual effect is not good.
However, the U.S. military has achieved good results with the F-4s successful overall design. In the early period of Vietnam War, F-4 could only obtain about 3:1 air combat exchange ratio due to the lack of training of pilots. With the war going on, by the early 1970s, the exchange ratio with MIG aircraft had risen to 6:1. By the end of the war, 151 aircraft of various types had been shot down, and five F-4 pilots or weapon controllers had become trump pilots.
In addition to combat models, Rf-4 series tactical reconnaissance aircraft equipped with reconnaissance equipment at the nose are also common. This is a Japanese rf-4ej reconnaissance aircraft. The black opening on the side of the nose is the oblique camera lens hole.
At the same time, McDonnell Douglas also learned from the lessons of the battlefield and continued to improve on the basis of f-4d, improved air combat capability and gave consideration to the bombing to the ground. As a result, another important model F-4E of the F-4 family was obtained. The F-4E, which first flew in 1967 and is still in service, is F-4E and its modification.
The F-4E is 19.2 meters long, 11.7 meters wingspan, 5 meters high and has a maximum takeoff weight of 28 tons, which exceeds the A-10 attack aircraft. In order to drive this big guy, two j79-ge-17a turbojet engines were installed, each with a thrust of about 8 tons, giving it powerful power performance. During the service period of ghost II, 16 world records were set, five of which were not broken until the F-15 fighter was in service, and all records were completed by the standard configuration of F-4.
Interestingly, the j79 engine has a problem that is hard to solve. It is easy to produce thick black tail smoke. In the open field of vision, the enemy can often see the ghosts flying with black tail far away. So pilots often reduce the power of one engine to the lowest level and let the other run normally, so as to achieve the effect of reducing black smoke.
J79 is one of the three largest turbojet engines in history, with a total production of more than 16500. The other two are American made j57 for large aircraft and Soviet made p21 for MiG-21 fighter.
It is the first F-4 fighter with internal fixed air gun, equipped with a m61a1 6-Tube 20 mm Gatling gun on the axis under the nose. In order to install the gun out of the plan, the antenna size of an / apq-72 radar can only be reduced, which has a certain impact on the detection performance.
There are 9 external hanging points on the aircraft, with a load capacity of 8480kg. It can be used to mount air-to-air weapons such as aim-9 rattlesnake short range fighting bombs, aim-7 and aim-120 medium range radar bombs. It can also mount agm-65 maverick air to ground missile, agm-78 Mockingbird anti radiation missile and other precision guided weapons, as well as MK-80 series aviation bombs and rocket launchers. Of course, the F-4 can also mount B61 nuclear bombs with an equivalent of 300-340000 tons of TNT to carry out tactical nuclear bombing missions.
The F-4C fighter, ahead of it are the aim-9p rattlesnake and aim-7e sparrow air-to-air missiles to be mounted.
The Vietnam War was the culmination of F-4s service career. Soon the air force and Navy began to replace it with newer F-14, F-16, F-15 and F / A-18. The F-4 of each allied team was successively transferred to the Allied air force or national guard to continue to use their surplus heat.
During the Gulf War in the early 1990s, the U.S. air force used the F-4 for the last time. The refitted f-4g fighter reconstituted the famous wild weasel unit, which especially strengthened the electronic warfare and anti radiation combat capabilities.
In the early days of the Gulf War, the f-4g was the only aircraft capable of electronic suppression and strike against the air defense system of the United States Air Force. It was responsible for searching and assisting in destroying Iraqi air defense radar and missile positions, creating conditions for subsequent large-scale air strikes.
The U.S. Air Forces F-4 for combat was officially retired in April 1996, but a part of the F-4 was modified into QF-4 target until 2016. The Navy replaced the F-4 with F-14A in 1987, and retained some QF-4 targets until 2004.
QF-4 and qf-16, which are both targets, are mostly used as manned towed targets. They will only be used as unmanned targets near the end of their service life to save money.
As a symbol of the cold war, the F-4 was exported to 11 countries for service. In the 1970s and 1980s, when the situation of the cold war was the most tense, more than 1000 ghosts were deployed on the Eastern European front. Now, the air forces of Turkey, Japan, Iran, Greece and South Korea are still using the F-4. In addition to Iran, four other countries have planned to purchase advanced fighters such as the F-35 in the next decade to replace it.
Among them, Iran is still trying to maintain its F-4 fleet by means of reverse engineering imitation and robbing the east wall to replace the west wall, with no definite retirement time. Therefore, Irans F-4 fighters are likely to be the last batch of F-14A fighters in active service in the world.
Irans F-4 fighters were purchased from the United States in the 1970s, including the F-4E and reconnaissance rf-4e. During the Iran Iraq war, Irans F-4 shot down 68 Soviet made Iraqi fighters. It is said that Irans active F-4 should not exceed 50. In general, F-4 is the crystallization of the excellent aviation industry technology in that year, which proves the excellence of its own design in the actual combat. It has the characteristics of high flight speed, large payload, large range and air to ground combat, which are also inherited by the later fighters. For example, the Navys f / A-18 carrier aircraft is designed in full accordance with the idea of considering air combat and ground bombing. As the originator of us modern multi-purpose fighter, the F-4 has left a strong mark in its service for more than half a century. Source: Tan Bing, Netease editor in charge: Wang xu_b12062
Irans F-4 fighters were purchased from the United States in the 1970s, including the F-4E and reconnaissance rf-4e. During the Iran Iraq war, Irans F-4 shot down 68 Soviet made Iraqi fighters. It is said that Irans active F-4 should not exceed 50.
In general, F-4 is the crystallization of the excellent aviation industry technology in that year, which proves the excellence of its own design in the actual combat. It has the characteristics of high flight speed, large payload, large range and air to ground combat, which are also inherited by the later fighters. For example, the Navys f / A-18 carrier aircraft is designed in full accordance with the idea of considering air combat and ground bombing. As the originator of us modern multi-purpose fighter, the F-4 has left a strong mark in its service for more than half a century.