Traditional computers store data as bits representing 0 or 1. However, through a special quantum physics principle called superposition, quantum bits can store a combination of 0 and 1 at the same time. Quantum bits can also be combined with another phenomenon called entanglement to enable quantum computers to simultaneously explore a large number of possible solutions to a problem.
However, one of the basic problems faced by quantum computing is that quantum bits are easy to be disturbed, which is why the core of quantum computer is placed in a huge refrigerated container. However, even with this isolation, a single qubit can only do useful work in a fraction of a second today. In order to compensate, quantum computer designers plan to use a technology called error correction to connect many qubits to form an effective qubit called logical qubit. The idea is that even if many of the basic physical qubits of logical qubits go astray, logical qubits can still perform useful processing work.
The main advantage of Microsoft topology qubit is that it needs less physical qubit to make a logical qubit. Specifically, using Microsofts topological qubits, a logical qubit requires 10 to 100 physical qubits. In contrast, other methods require between 1000 and 20000 physical quantum bits. This means that quantum computers built with Microsoft technology can become more practical with fewer qubits.
In contrast, Googles quantum computing chip sycamore uses 53 physical quantum bits. For important quantum computing work, researchers hope to reach the level of at least one million qubits.
However, one disadvantage of Microsoft topology qubits is that they are not yet available. Alternative designs may not work well, but they are currently being tested in the real world. Microsoft hopes to use its technology to help solve chemical problems, such as making fertilizer more efficiently, or arranging trucks to speed up transportation and reduce traffic jams.
Microsoft is also working to improve other aspects of quantum computing, such as control systems. In todays quantum computers, it is a complex system composed of hundreds of wires, each of which is an expensive coaxial cable used to communicate with quantum bits. Microsofts latest quantum computer control system uses far fewer wires, from 216 to just three. (small)
Source: Wang Fengzhi, editor in charge of Netease Technology Report