For the real economy, the combination of comprehensive reduction of standards + targeted reduction of standards has been implemented one after another; the operation of tmlf, refinancing, rediscount and other operations has been increasing; the goal of 30% increase in small and micro loan balance and 1% reduction in financing cost of large state-owned banks has been clarified; the bank has been guided to list credit plans and special assessment for intellectual property pledge loans.
Structural monetary and credit policies have played an active role. Data from the central bank shows that at the end of September, the balance of inclusive small and micro loans was 11.3 trillion yuan, an increase of 23.3% year-on-year, 8.1 percentage points higher than that at the end of last year. In the first three quarters of this year, inclusive small and micro loans accumulated 1.8 trillion yuan, 1.4 times the increase of the whole year last year. At the end of September, inclusive small and micro loans supported 25.69 million small and micro business entities, with an increase of 31.4% year-on-year.
It must be acknowledged that the growth of small and micro private enterprises can not be separated from the support of local governments, but also requires joint efforts in many fields. Since this year, Taizhou, Zhejiang Province has been frequently mentioned as a financial pilot area for supporting the people and supporting the small. Recently, the first financial reporter went to Taizhou to investigate and found that under the guidance of the regulatory authorities, local banks have tailored private enterprises and small and micro enterprises to explore a sustainable development sample of Taizhou.
Solving the problem of matching in the medium term
Private, small and micro enterprises are the absolute main force of Taizhou economy, accounting for more than 99% of the citys 600000 market entities. In order to serve the private, small and micro enterprises well, Taizhou has formed a set of distinctive and effective small and micro financial service mechanism and system in the reform practice.
The use of medium-term liquidity loans is one of them.
For private enterprises, especially manufacturing enterprises, the one-year short-term loans issued by banks cant fully match their production and operation cycle and payment collection cycle, which is easy to cause short loan for long use, frequent loan transfer and other phenomena, causing liquidity risk such as capital chain fracture. It is not conducive for entrepreneurs to make medium and long-term plans, but also drives up the cost of capital.
Star Groups products include a variety of white home appliances and optoelectronic components. It has two A-share listed companies, crystal optoelectronic and star technology, which are leading enterprises in optoelectronic industry. Even as a top 500 manufacturing group in China, Xingxing group is facing short-term liquidity pressure.
As a major cooperative bank, Xingxing group has a loan facility of about 1 billion yuan here. We believe that the enterprise has a demand for liquidity. Because the whole loan volume is relatively large, the stock fell last year, and the cash flow on hand of the enterprise is not sufficient, we help it to turn a part of the loan into a medium-term flow loan, which does not need to repay the principal for three years. In order to solve the short-term liquidity pressure, the companys follow-up capital strength is expected to increase substantially. Introduced by Yang Liubin, Secretary of the Party committee of Taizhou Branch of Agricultural Bank of China.
Reporters in the survey found that local banks have begun to provide three years of working capital loan services for enterprises. For example, Taizhou Branch of Zheshang Bank actively innovated the loan term, launched three-year loan and ten-year loan medium and long-term loan products, paid interest monthly, paid principal at maturity or paid in installments monthly, reducing the repayment pressure of enterprises. By the end of September, the branch had 232 medium and long-term loan products, with a loan balance of 690 million yuan.
It is worth noting that the amount of medium and long-term loans and manufacturing credit loans increased by banking institutions has been included in the MPA assessment indicators. The report on the implementation of Chinas monetary policy in the second quarter of 2019 focuses on adding indicators such as medium and long-term loans and credit loans to the macro Prudential assessment, adjusting the loan indicators of small and micro enterprises and private enterprises, and guiding financial institutions to increase their credit support to the real economy.
Previously, the bank adopted a strict result oriented assessment system. This assessment system does not distinguish the causes of bad debts, and the practice of one size fits all accountability leads to the low enthusiasm of many grass-roots staff in serving private and small and micro enterprises, which results in the phenomenon of dare not lend, unwilling to lend.
In order to solve this problem, the concept of due diligence exemption has been repeatedly mentioned by the regulatory authorities in the policy of private, small and micro enterprises.
In February 2019, the notice on Further Strengthening the relevant work of private enterprises in financial services stressed that it is necessary to establish and improve the due diligence exemption and fault tolerance and error correction mechanism for private enterprises loans as soon as possible, and exempt the relevant personnel from the responsibility for the projects that have been due but have risks.
The so-called due diligence exemption refers to the bank staff in the pre loan investigation, credit approval, loan issuance, loan management and other links have completely completed the relevant responsibilities, the private sector loans are still due to natural disasters and other factors are not yet on loan, but because this is not a normal experience can be predicted, for the bad debts, should be removed from the responsibility of the relevant personnel.
In the past two years, the credit practitioners of small and micro enterprises have indeed been exempted from liability in the end, but after all, the number is limited, and there are still a lot of penalties after problems occur. A banking person told the first financial reporter.
What is the most difficult thing for duty exemption? How to implement the duty exemption and unlock the concerns of the banks basic staff?
During the investigation, the first financial reporter learned that banking institutions within Taizhou jurisdiction have introduced relevant systems of due diligence and exemption. On the basis of the due diligence exemption of credit business, the citys banking institutions, in combination with the market risk situation, their own credit structure and credit business risk premium situation, moderately improve the bad tolerance of credit business of private, small and micro enterprises.
For example, Taizhou Branch of Bank of communications has made it clear that the non-performing loan rate of small and micro enterprises is within 2 percentage points (including) higher than the banks annual target of non-performing loan rate, which is not considered as a deduction factor for internal assessment and evaluation, and for the non-performing credit asset risk caused by customer operation risk, external market risk, external objective reason, force majeure and other factors, while the customer manager is in credit Those who perform their duties diligently in all aspects of asset management shall be exempted from punishment.
Taizhou Branch of Industrial Bank has formulated the detailed rules for the implementation of due diligence exemption of small enterprise credit business of Industrial Bank (revised in December 2017), which stipulates the scope, identification standard, due diligence exemption audit and identification procedure of due diligence exemption of small enterprise credit business, increases the tolerance value of small enterprises non-performing rate to 3.5%, and combines the economic cycle and enterprise operation environment according to the requirements of non-performing rate control Environment and other factors shall be adjusted annually.
Tyrone bank, which focuses on small and micro financial services, has implemented moderate tolerance for non-performing loans, and has given certain tolerance to those identified as lightly responsible. If a non-performing loan tolerance of 2% is set for a loan of less than 1 million yuan, that is, the business balance recognized as responsible accounts for less than 2% of the average daily loan scale, the customer manager can apply for no penalty.
During the interview, the reporter learned that under the current credit culture, one of the effective solutions is to replace offline with online. Due diligence process through data model, lending through technology, there is no judgment on people, so as to minimize the possibility of staff responsibility. The bankers told reporters.
Of course, online lending does not mean that the banks grassroots staff have no responsibility at all. According to the above bankers, in the online mode, risk warning signals will appear in the products. Different measures can be taken according to different warning signals, and the staff need to operate according to the regulations before they can be exempted from liability.
Sinking market and dislocation competition
Since this year, we have supported the continuous implementation of policies for private enterprises, and banks have responded positively to the increase of investment and the reduction of interest rates. However, the large state-owned banks issued loans at very low interest rates, to a certain extent, snatched the original high-quality customers of small and medium-sized banks, resulting in the pinching phenomenon, and the battle between small and medium-sized banks and large state-owned banks began quietly.
In Taizhou interview and research, the reporter learned that under the leadership of Touyan, the pressure of small and medium-sized banks doubled. Under this pressure, the local small and medium-sized banks will further sink the market, forming a differential development pattern of benign competition with the state-owned big banks.
For example, big banks mainly provide mortgage loans, while city commercial banks and agricultural commercial banks provide differentiated financial services, and more credit loans are used to obtain bargaining space.
At the beginning of its business, Taizhou bank could only choose the individual industrial and commercial households who could not obtain the services of formal financial institutions as its target customers because of its small scale and weak strength, he said. However, with the deepening of cooperation, it is found that the small and micro financial market is worthy of intensive cultivation, very suitable for small banks like us to serve. Said Huang Junmin.
For a long time, the development of technology-based small and micro enterprises has been faced with problems such as no mortgage, no guarantee, small scale and light assets, which is also the short board of traditional banking services. Another foothold of differentiated financial services is technology.
As the company has a number of patents, good growth and high product innovation, Taizhou technology branch of Talon bank matched the technology patent loan product with 1 million yuan, without the need for a third party guarantee. Effectively solve the dilemma of technology idle and capital shortage faced by small and micro enterprises.
It is understood that Taizhou science and technology branch of Talon bank innovates risk control mode, weakens the focus on enterprise financial index data, and formulates three views and three comments for small and micro technological enterprises, that is, look at patent, evaluation value, equity, development, market and risk.
Not long ago, the executive meeting of the State Council required banks to guide them to list credit plans and special assessment incentives for intellectual property pledge loans. If the non-performing rate is less than 3 percentage points higher than the non-performing rate of various loans, it may not be used as a factor for supervision and assessment.
According to Yuan Zhiwei, President of Taizhou Branch of Talon bank, experience shows that promoting patent pledge financing service can solve the mortgage guarantee problem of small and micro enterprises of scientific and technological innovation type and broaden their financing channels, which is an important starting point to solve the financing problem of small and micro enterprises.
According to Yuan Zhiwei, the pledge of patent right is a way to guarantee and increase credit. The key is to return to the financial source and attach importance to the first source of repayment. The value of patent right should be considered from the perspective of enterprises as a whole, including business model, enterprise talent resources, etc., rather than the single value of patent right itself.
Source: First Financial Editor: Guo Chenqi, nbj9931