Ni Guangnan, academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering
Ni Guangnan thinks its a pity that China doesnt develop software. First of all, China is rich in software talent resources, with a large increase. Every year, it cultivates a lot of software engineers, which should be said to be the first in the world.
Secondly, the industrial layout is more comprehensive (better), and the scale and quantity of leading enterprises are better (Huawei, bat, etc.).
Thirdly, the salary of personnel is medium (the average salary in 2017 was 130000), and the innovation of talents is good (software copyright, open source contribution, number of mass entrepreneurship and innovation, APP production, R & D efficiency, number of competitions...).
Finally, Ni Guangnan said that Chinas 5g is faster than anyone else in the world. In terms of artificial intelligence and big data, China is also very busy. I dare not say that it is better than others, but it attaches great importance to it, so it is a little shorter from developed countries.
The following is the actual record of the speech:
Leaders and entrepreneurs, this meeting is an opportunity for me to learn from excellent enterprises and entrepreneurs. What do you say? I think about it. Its about talent and innovation. Every enterprise and entrepreneur is most concerned about this problem. If you dont speak well, please correct.
First of all, since the Sino-U.S. trade frictions, some people have said that whether China can do it or not, is it a strong China or no innovation? From my personal point of view, its actually a few words. First of all, its a scientific and objective problem. For example, since 70 years ago, in the field of overall network information, in the field of network, security and informatization, and in the field of network information management, our overall technology and industry level rank second in the world. But as we will see below, we also have short boards.
How to compare our level? According to the market value ranking and leading enterprises ranking, it is generally OK. As shown in the figure above, in the field of information and communication, according to this standard, Huawei is not listed on the stock market. Some people estimate that it is 130000000000 US dollars, the first in the world. I think it is no problem. From Huaweis business situation and innovation situation, it is the first. Among the top 10, there are 7 in the United States, Huawei, Alibaba and Tencent in China, and Samsung can also be included. In fact, it generally shows our level in the world. China is still inferior to the United States, but it is a little bigger than Samsung. Generally speaking, Samsungs level, Japan, Britain and Germany, is in the third stage of this long-distance running. The first is the United States, the second is China, the third is probably these developed countries, the fourth is India and a lot of other countries. This watch is objective, so I dont think it should be too pessimistic or optimistic.
But this is not enough. Although China is the worlds largest in terms of industry category, and our industry category is certainly the first and the second on average in the field of online information, we still have shortcomings in some important aspects, especially in the key core technologies. As shown in the figure above, one is hardware, but Chinas chips cant. Once Huawei is restricted, we find that there are still software, especially basic ones, such as operating systems. If these two short boards are not supplemented, the average is still not good.
Of course, there are two good places. The first is the new generation of information technology, 5g. There is no doubt that 5g in China is faster than anyone else in the world. I think 5g is deployed in every city in China. Do you think there is 5g abroad? Theres no doubt about that. Weve been leading the way since the heel race. Of course, in terms of artificial intelligence and big data, China is also very busy. I dare not say that it is better than others, but it attaches great importance to it, so the distance between China and developed countries should be shorter.
Of course, our Internet application is also very good. Some people say its not important, the foundation is not enough and the innovation is not enough, which is right. But its also feasible to force the development of the foundation by application. This is not to say that we have caught up with the United States, but on the whole, some favorable conditions are easy to catch up with now.
The question to be answered is, since the average is second, why cant the short board go up? Cant you do it? In my analysis, there are two reasons. It is objective that we have developed rapidly in the past 70 years since the founding of the peoples Republic of China, but others have developed for 120 years, and some of our places are certainly not enough. Second, it is objectively more difficult for people to impose embargoes, blockades and sanctions on you.
In addition, there are subjective reasons. Its very important. Let me give you three. Do you agree
First, the influence of buying is better than building, and renting is better than buying.
Just now I said our short board, our chip manufacturing industry is not good, the United States has monopolized, but we cant. You can see Huadas nine day data. First, it was ban of Batumi (Paris overall planning committee). Later, the country had to do it by itself if it could not. So in 1988, it launched a domestic EDA tool called panda system, which could be done at that time. When didnt you do it? In 1994, we stopped because Batumi lifted the embargo on China. Do you think its a good thing or a bad thing? The good thing is that its relatively easy to buy. In the past, China couldnt buy software, so it could only come in through Hong Kong or other ways. But after the lifting of the embargo in 1994, its very easy to buy it. What else should we do if we can buy it? So its stopped. Now its set sail again. In 2009, Huada was founded for nine days, and the 12th Five year plan was a major project of high-tech EDA. Now its still being done. If its been done, and it doesnt stop in the middle, maybe we have the fourth (chip company) in the world.
Second, the idea of emphasizing hard but soft is particularly common in our country.
Software industry is one of the fastest growing industries in China. In 2000, the total sales volume was 56 billion yuan, one more per year, to 6300 billion yuan last year. This year, its 700 billion yuan. Its very good. The enterprises are very large. From 2000 to 2018, they have increased by 112 times in 18 years. Would you like to look for trillions of industries in China, so fast? I cant find it. The development of this industry is very fast. The first is relying on talents, Chinese software people are very excellent; the second is relying on the market, the Chinese market is very large; and the third is relying on what? Funds? Since the founding of the peoples Republic of China, we have invested less than 5 billion yuan in the software industry for a long time
In such a large industry, the relevant departments of the state have invested less than 5 billion yuan, that is to say, tens of millions on average a year, which is equal to no investment. Basically, private investment is also very small. The investment in this industry is not far ahead, it is very reluctant, and the software personnel barely live. By what? Policy. Since 2000, the state has had a Guofa No. 18 document. Because of this preferential policy, our software industry has come out, so we rely on talent, market and policy, not money.
Third, wear vest.
In the field of Internet and information, the common saying is to pack foreign products and promote them at home. The support from the state is especially great. Whats wrong with this? People will think that I already have it and dont do it. Then there are security risks. (foreign products) if you dont know about the back door or loopholes, or sue you for intellectual property rights, the foreign intellectual property rights, the Chinese joint venture, is originally an agent, fair and aboveboard, we must pay attention not to package it as our own, so the intellectual property rights are infringed. Its easy to paralyze itself, thinking that weve got it, we dont do it. At present, the state attaches great importance to security and many people are doing it. If not, I will continue to talk about the dangers of not doing it.
Recently, there is also a problem that independent and controllable evaluation should evaluate the American technology content. Before, if we acquired other peoples intellectual property, we could acquire it. Now there may be no problem with intellectual property, but there is the problem of entity list. There are export controls. If the American technology content exceeds 25%, the United States will impose sanctions, involving many details, including components, software and hardware, and materials And so on, for example, the automobile industry, many years ago, the use of American technology may include, if only more than 25%, has the final say. Even the intellectual property rights acquired by the money may be covered with this. The United States will say that 10 years ago and 20 years ago this was my technology. So we have to deal with this potential risk.
Software is the driving force to promote the development of the new generation of information technology. Many traditional companies, such as BMW and Boeing, such as BMW 7, have more than 200 million lines of built-in software code, and more than 1 billion lines of software code in Boeing 787 aircraft. The hardware of the new generation of technology is almost the same, and the key is software.
Ten years ago, I went to Huawei for research. Huawei said that 70% of its R & D personnel are engaged in software. Recently, I asked how many of them are. They said that about 89% of them are engaged in software. Hardware comparison standards, especially CPU, are almost the same, but when it comes to artificial intelligence, blockchain, big data, mobile communication and virtual reality, the difference lies in software, so we should strengthen software, and we have many advantages in the software industry, we hope to do well in software.
China is rich in software talent resources. China has the largest talent resources in the world, with large increment. Every year, many software engineers are trained, which should be said to be the first in the world. I wont go into details about that.
This is an interview with Larry Ellison, the founder of Oracle. He knows more about software than some of our leaders. He said, we cant let China produce more engineers than America! He said that raw materials, hardware and other aspects are not afraid of software. He said that if Chinas software is ahead of the rest and more talents are available, it will pose a great threat to the United States.
Third, open source software promotes open innovation in software industry. Open source software (Netease commercial note: the source code can be used by the public, and the use, modification and distribution of this software are not limited by the license) has become the mainstream of the software industry, which is regulated by the United States, but there is no way to regulate it. We mainly want to add enterprises like Huawei, and increase the participants, contributors and leaders of Chinese enterprises in the software industry People.
Finally, we hope to extend the open source model, which has been very successful in the software industry, to the hardware industry. In 2010, the University of California, Berkeley, invented the BSD license based on widely used and very loose standards. Users can freely use risc-v to design, develop and add their own instruction set for expansion Choose whether to make a public offering, or to sell commercially, or to replace another license agreement, or to use it completely closed-source. What are the benefits of it? Its completely open. There are only two instruction set architectures that CPU chip can stand in the market. One is Intels AMD. Its very good. Unfortunately, you cant get the authorization. It monopolizes the desktop and server fields. Its rarely authorized to the outside world. Its very difficult, but its hard to control independently. One is arms instruction set architecture CPU, which has a long history and occupies a monopoly position in mobile and embedded fields. Many companies in the world spend millions to hundreds of millions of yuan to purchase CPU licenses from arm. Now there is a new risc-v. risc-v has four advantages:
(1) design advantages
The main significance of risc-v is that it is free from licensing fees and intellectual property risks. Traditional chip design sometimes requires hundreds of millions of R & D costs, hundreds of peoples team and a lot of time, which makes it impossible for small and medium-sized technology enterprises to undertake chip R & D and forced to use only existing products in the market, which not only causes absolute monopoly of the chip market, but also loses the initiative of development; while open source chip design can greatly reduce the threshold of chip design, even 3 -Within 3-4 months, a small team of 5 people can develop a chip with market competitiveness with only tens of thousands of yuan. It is very suitable for small and medium-sized enterprises to start their own businesses, has a broad market prospect, and can effectively promote the prosperity of the chip industry.
(2) technical advantages
When risc-v instruction set was originally designed, its R & D team made it clear to pursue review and discard the historical burden. At present, the formed technology code set is small, supports modularization, and has excellent performance. It can meet the needs of various complex processors from microcontrollers to supercomputers, and supports various implementation methods from FPGA, ASIC and even future devices. At the same time, it can effectively implement various micro structures, support a large number of customization and acceleration functions, and can be well adapted to the existing software and programming language.
(3) market advantages
With the development of the new generation of information technology, such as artificial intelligence and Internet of things, the demand for CPU in various scenarios is increasingly fragmented, embedded applications have broad prospects, and the demand for low power consumption, low cost and customization is growing, which makes risc-vs advantages of simplicity, low power consumption, modularity and expandability very consistent with the future development direction of digital economy.
(4) management advantages
The original risc-v instruction set was in the 1950s, so most patents have already expired, and there will be no big patent barriers and cost problems in commercialization and open source use. In addition, risc-v is managed by the foundation established in 2005, which is a non-profit neutral organization and open community, mainly responsible for daily maintenance of risc-v instruction set standard manuals and architecture documents, and participating in RISC- The development of software and hardware ecosystem. The foundation adopts membership management. At present, there are hundreds of member units. The Institute of computing of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is the initiating and auditing member. Ali and Huawei are Platinum members. This open management mode can effectively promote the communication and innovation of risc-v community, form an ecosystem, reduce the cost of research and development, and break the monopoly of the chip market. This is the benefit of open source. We can cultivate ecology with a new generation of information technology and it. Finally, our goal is to let the world come out of the third mode, completely free and open, to see if we can better meet our needs. Thank you. Source: Netease business Author: Ni Guangnan; academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering editor: Zhang Mei; nf2100
The original risc-v instruction set was in the 1950s, so most patents have already expired, and there will be no big patent barriers and cost problems in commercialization and open source use. In addition, risc-v is managed by the foundation established in 2005, which is a non-profit neutral organization and open community, mainly responsible for daily maintenance of risc-v instruction set standard manuals and architecture documents, and participating in RISC- The development of software and hardware ecosystem. The foundation adopts membership management. At present, there are hundreds of member units. The Institute of computing of the Chinese Academy of Sciences is the initiating and auditing member. Ali and Huawei are Platinum members. This open management mode can effectively promote the communication and innovation of risc-v community, form an ecosystem, reduce the cost of research and development, and break the monopoly of the chip market.
This is the benefit of open source. We can cultivate ecology with a new generation of information technology and it. Finally, our goal is to let the world come out of the third mode, completely free and open, to see if we can better meet our needs.