The policy of stable production and supply will be further coded! ____________
On September 10, the State Office issued its Opinions on Stabilizing Pig Production and Promoting Transformation and Upgrading. In terms of accelerating the construction of modern breeding system, the Opinion clearly proposes to promote the scientific and technological progress of pig production, strengthen the construction of modern pig breeding system, implement pig genetic improvement plan, enhance the self-sufficiency rate of core breeds and improve the supply capacity of improved breeds.
With the continuing problem of African swine fever, more than 10 million pigs have been killed by African swine fever in the whole country. The decrease in the number of live pigs has resulted in the shortage of pork supply, which ultimately reflects the continuous rise in market pork prices.
At the same time, the increasingly stringent environmental supervision, coupled with the fact that some livestock and poultry farms which are seriously polluted and not up to the standard of environmental protection have been investigated and dealt with in the process of supervision, has enabled some local governments to equate pig-raising with environmental pollution and implement one size fits all for pig-raising.
A farmer in southern Hubei told Daily Economic News that at that time, because the environmental protection facilities were not up to standard, the environmental protection supervision required a more centralized farming area to be rectified, while the local government banned all the farmer in the farming area directly, and classified the area that was not a prohibited farming area as a prohibited farming area.
Is pig raising equal to environmental pollution? What are the requirements for the delimitation of forbidden zones? What are the purposes of delimitation? What environmental problems may arise in the process of pig breeding?
Recently, in response to this series of questions, a number of experts in the industry conducted a concentrated answer. Among them, Professor Lu Ancheng of Zhejiang University introduced that some local governments, under the banner of environmental protection, used the delimitation of forbidden breeding areas to squeeze and restrict the development of livestock and poultry breeding, including live pigs. The natural villages are designated as forbidden zones, and there are individual counties to create no pig counties.
Some local governments crack down on and squeeze aquaculture in the name of environmental protection
Wu Genyi, a professor at Hunan Agricultural University, said that the main reason affecting the decline of live pig production is the impact of African swine plague and the superposition of the pig cycle.
Among them, according to the current requirements of epidemic prevention, once the epidemic situation is found, pigs within 3 km of the surrounding area need to be culled. According to media analysis, up to now, more than 10 million live pigs have been culled due to African swine fever in China, seriously damaging the enthusiasm of farmers.
Affected by the low price of live pigs in 2018, sow stocks fell. From the second half of 2018, pig farms declined, and now they are in low production capacity.
Wu Genyi believes that by the superposition of factors such as the African swine plague and the downward cycle of pigs, the pig production capacity has dropped sharply this year for 10 years. Monitoring data showed that there were 32.7 million fewer live pigs in July than in June. The price of live pigs rose accordingly, rising more than 80% year-on-year in August, reaching an all-time high.
Wu Genyi said: Because pig and other livestock and poultry farming can not bring tax revenue to the local government, but also occupy land, the local government needs to bear the risk of epidemic prevention, food safety and environmental protection and the pressure of being prosecuted. Some local governments are not very enthusiastic about developing pig and other livestock and poultry farming industry, even in the name of environmental protection. And squeeze the development of aquaculture.
At the same time, the way of transmission of African swine fever is more complex, and there is no effective vaccine at present, which makes farmers lack confidence in the resumption of production.
Zhu Changxiong, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, said that African swine fever transmission routes are complex and may spread in pig breeding, slaughtering, transportation and consumption. At the same time, African swine fever virus has a large number of genotypes and immune escape mechanisms. Some vaccines developed at this stage do not have the ability to completely eliminate African swine fever virus.
Data show that sow and live pig stocks continue to decline, as of July this year, live pig stocks fell 32.2% year-on-year, able sows dropped 31.9% year-on-year.
The prohibited area is not a ban on all farming activities, and individual counties create no pig counties.
The delimitation of forbidden zones has become a legal weapon for many local governments to ban pig farms, but can any place be turned into forbidden zones? Cant there be any farming in the forbidden area?
Jia Shengyuan, a researcher at Bohong Environmental Resources Company in Central Beijing, introduced that the Regulations on the Prevention and Control of Pollution from Livestock and Poultry Breeding stipulated that the drinking water source protection area, the core and buffer zones of nature reserves, scenic spots, urban residential areas, cultural and educational research areas and other population concentration areas as well as other prohibitions stipulated by laws and regulations. It is forbidden to construct farms whose scale is higher than the standard set by the provincial government.
Jia Shengyuan believes that the primary purpose of the delimitation of forbidden areas is to prevent environmental risks; secondly, large-scale aquaculture farms produce large amounts of feces and urine, and emit odorous gases that will affect the production and living environment; and thirdly, to prevent the destruction of the landscape, environment and the ecosystem of nature reserves in scenic spots.
Jia Shengyuan emphasized that it should be clear that the forbidden breeding areas are forbidden by law to cultivate farms above scale or with pollutant emissions, not to prohibit all aquaculture practices. In addition, the delimitation of forbidden cultivation zones must be strictly limited to the scope of laws and regulations (including the statutory documents issued by the local peoples congresses with legislative power), and should not be expanded at will, let alone on the grounds of improving the environment, to clean up the aquaculture industry by delimiting forbidden cultivation zones, so as to clean up instead of governance.
In fact, the delimitation of forbidden zones has little effect on the current shortage of live pigs. After the first case of African swine plague occurred in 2018, there were about 1000 closed and relocated farms in China, involving livestock production capacity of about 2 million 50 thousand pigs, accounting for 0.6% of the countrys pig stock.
The reality is that the forbidden zone has become a sharp weapon of environmental governance in some places. Luan Cheng introduced that because the local understanding of laws, regulations and policies related to environmental protection of livestock and poultry farming is not in place, we can not grasp them accurately. At the same time, we can not find a feasible way to control them. We believe that breeding is equal to pollution, and we must clean up the farming industry if we want to eradicate the pollution of livestock and poultry farming.
Luan Cheng pointed out that some local governments, under the banner of environmental protection, used the delimitation of forbidden breeding zones to squeeze and restrict the development of livestock and poultry farming, including pigs. If all the rivers and lakes are surrounded by 200 meters and 500 meters, they should be designated as forbidden zones. The area along the railway lines should be designated as forbidden zones. The natural villages will be designated as forbidden zones, and some counties and districts will create no pig counties. As a result, the majority of farmers have misunderstood the policy of environmental protection, believing that environmental protection is to prohibit pig raising, environmental protection prohibition and environmental clean-up are more common.
For this reason, Luan Cheng suggested that the concept, purpose and management requirements of the forbidden maintenance area should be further clarified, the delimitation and management of the forbidden maintenance area should be further standardized, and local forbidden maintenance provisions beyond the scope of laws and regulations should be resolutely and promptly abolished.
Returning liquid manure such as biogas slurry to the field is not sewage discharge and does not apply to sewage discharge standards.
Our country produces a huge amount of livestock and poultry manure, reaching 3.8 billion tons per year. The resource utilization rate of manure from livestock and poultry farming above the scale is less than 70%. According to the data of the first pollution source census, the COD emissions from livestock and poultry farming accounted for 96% of the total agricultural emissions and nearly half of the total national emissions.
With the development of livestock and poultry breeding industry, it is particularly important to solve environmental protection problems such as fecal pollution control. However, at present, there is a major problem in the resourcefulness of manure. The applicable standard of manure, especially liquid manure such as biogas slurry and fertilizer water, is not accurate.
Sheng Qingkai, a researcher at Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, said that liquid fertilizers such as marsh slurry were often regarded as sewage in some places and returned to farmland as sewage, which was banned. In addition, mixing liquid fertilizer with irrigation or sewage discharge requires that liquid fertilizer be treated to meet the irrigation water quality standards or sewage discharge standards before returning to the field. These misunderstandings have a negative impact on the smooth passage of waste recycling channels.
Sheng Qingkai suggested that the propaganda and training efforts should be further strengthened, the guidance to the local authorities should be strengthened, the unified understanding should be strengthened, the relevant applicable standards for waste recycling should be further clarified, and the nature of liquid manure returned to the field, such as biogas slurry, should be correctly judged, instead of sewage discharge, irrigation, but fertilization. It is further clarified that liquid manure such as biogas slurry is not suitable for sewage discharge and irrigation water quality standards, but for biogas slurry and manure.
Meanwhile, Dong Renjie, a professor at China Agricultural University, said that by the end of 2018, the scale of pig farming was only 49.1%. Farmers below the scale still account for more than half of the total production capacity, while the vast majority of households, accounting for more than 99%, have a wide range of points. At present, the utilization rate of manure in large-scale aquaculture farms in China is 70%. According to the research and development, it is common for farmer manure to be piled up in disorder, which seriously affects the quality of rural environment.
In the process of reintroduction of live pigs, farmers below the scale will occupy an important share. However, the vast majority of farmers have poor economic strength and low technical level. If the guidance and assistance are not in place, a large number of wastes will be piled up and directly discharged, which will cause serious pollution.
Dong Renjie suggested that aquaculture farmers should be instructed and urged to equip with basic environmental protection facilities, equipped with rain and sewage diversion and waste storage and maturation facilities according to law, to provide basic hardware guarantee for waste recycling, to ensure that the waste can be stored and matured; and to improve the way of manure accumulation and application. We should guide and support the innovation of waste recycling methods, and improve the commercialization level of various forms of manure by cultivating manure brokers.