On August 26, the Fifth Meeting of the Central Committee on Finance and Economics was held to study how to promote the formation of a regional economic layout with complementary advantages and high-quality development, and how to improve the basic capabilities of industries and the level of industrial chains.
On August 31, the Financial Stability and Development Committee of the State Council (hereinafter referred to as the Finance Committee) held a meeting, pointing out that we should fully tap the potential of investment demand, explore the establishment of incentive mechanism for investment projects, and support regions and areas willing to start their own businesses, dare to undertake and have better development potential to accelerate development. We attach great importance to infrastructure, high-tech, traditional industrial transformation, social services and the development of new growth poles.
The focus of these two meetings is that the country will then give more prominence to the role of central cities and urban agglomerations in economic development, where Chinas population and economy will be concentrated in the future.
The first financial and economic journalist found that Chinas urbanization has experienced many rounds of top-level design promotion, and now has basically formed a 19 + 2 urban agglomeration pattern. It can be predicted that from comprehensive development to key development, Chinas regional economy will have a spatial reconstruction, which will have a far-reaching impact on the layout of regional development. Every policy push will accelerate the agglomeration of population, capital, technology and other factors. What opportunities will there be for development in this round?
The Rise of Urban Agglomerations in China
Since the reform and opening up, Chinas urbanization has accelerated.
According to the latest data from the National Bureau of Statistics, the urbanization rate of the permanent population reached 59.58% at the end of 2018, 41.66 percentage points higher than that at the end of 1978, with an average annual increase of 1.04 percentage points.
With the process of urbanization, large, medium and small cities and towns have developed rapidly, the number of cities has increased rapidly, and the size of urban population has also expanded significantly. By the end of 2018, the number of cities reached 672. By the end of 2017, there were 14 cities with more than 5 million household registration, 16 cities with 3-5 million population and 219 cities with 500,000-3 million population.
Among them, big cities have become the driving force to promote regional and national economic growth. From the data point of view, the per capita GDP growth rate in Chinas metropolitan areas is four times that in other parts of the country. In 2018, the GDP of 16 cities across the country surpassed trillion yuan, and the total economic output of these 16 cities accounted for more than 30% of the countrys total.
The rapid development of big cities also promotes the formation and growth of urban agglomerations. At the same time, in the policy design of regional economy, the idea of promoting regional development by cultivating urban agglomerations has gradually formed in the past 10 years.
The National Planning for Main Functional Areas, compiled in 2010, has planned the strategic pattern of urbanization of two horizontal and three vertical, and has proposed that while optimizing and upgrading the urban agglomerations in the eastern region, in the regions with strong carrying capacity of resources and environment in the central and Western regions, a number of population-intensive and economic-intensive urban agglomerations should be fostered and promoted by promoting urbanization. The development of the central and Western regions.
On this basis, the National New Urbanization Planning (2014-2020), compiled in 2014, also proposes to speed up the cultivation of Chengdu-Chongqing, Central Plains, the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and Kazakhstan-Changsha urban agglomerations, making them an important growth pole to promote balanced development of territorial space and lead regional economic development.
At the same time, the plan also requires optimizing the size and structure of cities and towns, enhancing the radiation-driven function of central cities, speeding up the development of small and medium-sized cities, focusing on the development of small and medium-sized cities, and promoting the coordinated development of large, medium and small cities and towns.
Since then, in 2016, the 13th Five-Year Plan proposed to accelerate the construction and development of urban agglomerations, listing 18 urban agglomerations at different levels. These 18 urban agglomerations are the two horizontal and three vertical strategic layout of urbanization in the National Main Functional Areas Planning.
According to the objectives of the National Main Functional Areas Planning, by 2020, the strategic pattern of urbanization with two horizontal and three vertical as the main body will basically be formed, and the major urbanized areas in the country will concentrate most of the population and total economic output.
According to a recent article by the Department of Cities of the National Statistical Bureau, the inter-provincial regional urban agglomeration planning has been fully implemented, and the urban agglomeration planning within the province has been completed. The 19+2 urban agglomeration pattern has basically formed and developed steadily. With the increasing role of radiation in central cities, the core cities and surrounding cities in urban agglomeration are jointly participating in the division of labor and cooperation, and the trend of urbanization is becoming more and more obvious.
19+2 refers to 19 urban agglomerations in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, Shandong Peninsula, West Bank of the Strait, Kazakhstan, Central and South Liaoning, Central Plain, Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River, Chengdu-Chongqing Region, Guanzhong Plain, Beibuwan, Jinzhong, Hubao, Uyu, Guizhou, Central Yunnan, Lanzhou-Xining, Ningxia along the northern slope of the Huangtianshan Mountains, and Elasha and Kazakhstan. Two urban circles with Shi as the center.
This series of top-level design promotes the rapid development of urban agglomeration, and its role in leading regional development is increasingly obvious. For example, in 2018, the total economic volume of Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomeration has approached 6 trillion yuan, accounting for 6.6% of the country, compared with 5.49% in 2014.
Differentiation of 19 Urban Agglomerations
Nineteen urban agglomerations originated from the National Planning of Main Functional Areas. The plan divides the national territory into optimized development, key development, restricted development and prohibited development areas. Nineteen urban agglomerations belong to optimized development and key development areas. Their main functions are to provide industrial products and service products, and to gather population and economy. Other areas belong to the production of agricultural products and ecological protection.
At present, 19 urban agglomeration plans have been issued or compiled. According to the first financial statistics, 19 + 2 covers all provinces, districts and cities in the country, of which 19 urban agglomerations cover and involve 231 cities above the prefecture level in the mainland. By the end of 2018, 297 cities above the prefecture level in the whole country, that is to say, more than 70% of cities above the prefecture level in the whole country have been included in these 19 urban agglomerations.
However, the development level of each urban agglomeration is uneven, and the 19 urban agglomerations can be roughly divided into three levels.
In the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei urban agglomerations at the top of the pyramid of the urban system, China is representing the world urban agglomeration. In February, the Outline of Development Planning for Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Great Bay Area was released, which positioned Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Great Bay Area as a first-class Bay Area with vigor and international competitiveness and a world-class urban agglomeration. In May, the Central Committee deliberated and adopted the Outline of the Yangtze River Delta Regional Integration Development Plan to accelerate the integration process.
In addition, there are 8 Urban agglomerations, including Beibuwan, northern slope of Tianshan Mountain, Hubao Elm, central Yunnan, central Guizhou, Lanxi, central Shanxi and Yanhuang of Ningxia. These urban agglomerations are located in underdeveloped areas, of which four are located to the west of Hu Huanyong Line. There are gaps in population quantity and density, urbanization rate, economic scale and other aspects with urban agglomeration standards, which need to be nurtured.
Focus on central cities
It is the core city that decides the weight of urban agglomeration. For example, Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomeration, the middle reaches of the Yangtze River urban agglomeration, the Central Plains urban agglomeration and the Guanzhong Plain urban agglomeration have five national central cities, which have become the new growth poles in the country.
Opinions of the Central Committee and the State Council of the CPC on the Establishment of a More Effective New Mechanism for Regional Harmonious Development put forward that Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei should be taken as the center to lead the development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration and promote the coordinated development of the Bohai Rim region. Take Shanghai as the center to lead the development of urban agglomerations in the Yangtze River Delta and promote the development of the Yangtze River Economic Zone. Taking Hong Kong, Macao, Guangzhou and Shenzhen as the centers, we will lead the construction of the Great Bay Area of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao, and promote the innovative and green development of the Pearl River-Xijiang Economic Zone. With Chongqing, Chengdu, Wuhan, Zhengzhou and Xian as the center, we will lead the development of Chengdu-Chongqing, the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, the Central Plains and the Guanzhong Plain, and promote the integration and development of related plates.
In contrast, eight urban agglomerations, such as Beibu Gulf, northern slope of Tianshan Mountain, Hubao Elm, central Yunnan, central Guizhou, Lanxi, Jinzhong and Yanhuang of Ningxia, lack the support of big cities. For example, the economic scale of Beibu Gulf urban agglomeration accounts for more than 40% of the total economic volume of Guangxi, but the scale of Nanning is still in the third and fourth tier cities in the country. The four cities of Huhhot, Baotou, Ordos and Yulin in Hubao-Eyu urban agglomeration lack a leader.
In fact, urban agglomerations are derived from the economic development of provinces and regions, often taking provincial capitals as the central cities of urban agglomerations. Therefore, in recent years, more attention has been paid to the development of central cities. Some provinces have strengthened their leading and leading roles by expanding their provincial capitals. Not only that, while strengthening the provincial capital, all regions are also vigorously promoting the construction of metropolitan areas. In February this year, the National Development and Reform Commission issued the Guiding Opinions on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Circles, proposing to promote the co-urbanization of central cities and surrounding cities (towns), cultivate and develop a number of modern metropolitan circles, and form new regional competitive advantages. In fact, the scope of urban agglomeration is large and involves many administrative divisions. The process of integration is more complex and arduous, while the scope of the development of metropolitan area is relatively small, highly targeted and easy to start. Therefore, it is often promoted step by step from the central city and metropolitan area. In the process of promoting the integration of urban agglomerations in the future, the metropolitan area will be placed in an important position. Source: First Financial Responsibility Editor: Zhong Qiming_NF5619
In fact, urban agglomerations are derived from the economic development of provinces and regions, often taking provincial capitals as the central cities of urban agglomerations. Therefore, in recent years, more attention has been paid to the development of central cities. Some provinces have strengthened their leading and leading roles by expanding their provincial capitals.
Not only that, while strengthening the provincial capital, all regions are also vigorously promoting the construction of metropolitan areas. In February this year, the National Development and Reform Commission issued the Guiding Opinions on the Cultivation and Development of Modern Metropolitan Circles, proposing to promote the co-urbanization of central cities and surrounding cities (towns), cultivate and develop a number of modern metropolitan circles, and form new regional competitive advantages.
In fact, the scope of urban agglomeration is large and involves many administrative divisions. The process of integration is more complex and arduous, while the scope of the development of metropolitan area is relatively small, highly targeted and easy to start. Therefore, it is often promoted step by step from the central city and metropolitan area. In the process of promoting the integration of urban agglomerations in the future, the metropolitan area will be placed in an important position.