On this day of expressing gratitude to teachers all over the country, Ma Yun stepped down as chairman of Alibaba Board of Directors and devoted himself to being a teacher Ma.
It has been 20 years since Alibaba was established in 1999 in Room 202 of Unit 1 of 16 Wind Lotus Courtyard of Lakeside Garden. By this year, Alibaba has grown into a company with a market value of $460 billion.
In the past two decades, Ma Yun and Alibaba have left behind miracles and innovations, as well as disputes and challenges.
After today, there is no horse father in the world.
More exciting content, please pay attention to the special report Ma Yuns resignation as Chairman of Alis Board of Directors
Deep cheekbones, twisted hair, naughty grinning, with a 5-foot, 100-pound naughty look, this strange-looking man has Napoleons stature, but also Napoleons great ambition. In 2000, Forbes magazine described Ma Yun in this way.
However, in 1984, Ma Yun entered the English major of Hangzhou Normal University after three failures in the College Entrance Examination.
After graduation, he was assigned to teach English at Hangzhou Institute of Electronics Technology at a monthly salary of 12 dollars. At that time, Hangzhou College of Electronic Technology ranked very low in Hangzhou Colleges and Universities, but Ma Yun was the top ten English teachers in Hangzhou Colleges and Universities.
Apart from teaching at school, Ma Yun not only set up an English corner near the West Lake, but also teaches English part-time at night school. There, Ma Yun met many students. Since then, five of them have become members of the Eighteen Arhats.
However, Ma Yun was late for class on his first day of part-time work because his tractor was on the way. This is Ma Yun describes a scene in which Ma Yun rode a first generation electric bicycle in Hangzhou, making a sound similar to that of a tractor, giving people a feeling of thunder, heavy rain and small drops.
With the increasing demand for translation of foreign language materials in society, Ma Yun, who is uneasy, has set up Haibo Translation Agency. Haibo is the transliteration of English hope. Ma Yun explains that the sea is generally a great hope.
Hopefully, it didnt come true, but the business of the translation agency was very poor. So Ma Yun led a team to Yiwu small commodity market on weekends to buy goods and sell them in the translation agency. Until 1995, the business of the translation agency was getting better and better. At that time, Ma Yun had shifted his focus to the Internet and gave the translation agency to one of the students who had joined the stock market.
One day in 1995, Ma Yun, who had just returned from the United States, huddled on his sofa in a blanket and told his friends about his adventures in the United States.
Originally, Ma Yun failed to collect debts in the United States. After a series of exciting incidents, he flew to Seattle to meet his friends. Because a foreign teacher friend once boasted to him that his son-in-law had opened an excellent Inter company there, Ma Yun decided to open his eyes. There Ma Yun first came into contact with the Internet.
Later story Ma Yun talked to the media countless times. I wont go into any more details here.
Im very excited. Its so interesting. Many years later, when recalling the situation at that time, Ma Yun was still very excited.
At that time, he was also keenly excited to see business opportunities. A few days later, Ma Yun returned to China with a 486 computer, which was the most equipped computer at that time.
Then theres the party above. At this gathering, Ma Yunkou blew the Internet for two hours. Later, he confessed that the speech was like a dream because he didnt know the Internet at that time.
But anyway, Ma Yun started the Chinese Yellow Page as scheduled, more than three months before China could access the Internet.
Later, Ma Yun sold Chinese Yellow Pages everywhere, but the stories about him were scattered in every corner of the Internet.
Fan Xinmin, the editor of The Scholar Ma Yun, recalled this history later and said this scene: On the bus returning at night, Ma Yuntou looked at the glass outside and whispered to himself, In a few years, Beijing will not do this to me; in a few years, you will all know what I am doing. I wont be so depressed in Beijing.
Bad news is also coming from home. There is a telecommunications department in Hangzhou that makes the same website, also called Yellow Pages. Ma Yun had to go back to fight. After several rounds, the two families merged, but it was not long before Ma Yun launched.
Although this venture failed, the vast majority of the Eighteen Arhats gathered during this period. Sun Tongyu joined the Yellow Pages of China with his girlfriend, who was still teaching at the university, at the trick of Ma Yun. His girlfriend is Peng Lei. Since then, Jiang Fang, Sheng Yifei, Han Min, Lou Wensheng and Wu Yongming have joined in succession.
These people also play an indispensable role in the development of Alibaba.
Before leaving, Ma Yun and more than a dozen colleagues from the Yellow Pages of China had a farewell dinner in a hotel in Hangzhou. Its raining hard outside. We all sang heartfelt heroes. In Alibaba Forty Avenues, Xie Shihuang said that this scene touched him.
Finally, Zhang Ying, Sun Tongyu, Wu Yongming, Sheng Yifei, Ma Changwei, Lou Wensheng, Xie Shihuang, Peng Lei, Han Min, Jiang Fang, Dai Shan and Zhou Yuehong followed Ma Yunbei, and the song True Hero later became the last track of each Ali annual meeting.
However, to Xie Shihuangs surprise, Ma Yun decided to abandon Guofutong and return to Hangzhou a year later because of the divergence of enterprise development path and the lack of the sole condition of independent management right to come to Guofutong.
In an interview with Yang Lan, Ma Yun said that he told the team members that he had helped them pave three ways: the first is to work at Yahoo, as long as he recommended, it must be no problem. Second, to Sina and Sohu, they will certainly be able to enter, and their wages are not low. The third is to go back to Hangzhou with him. His salary is only 500 yuan, and he can only work at my home. He cant take a taxi yet. He will be very tired.
On the eve of leaving Beijing, Ma Yun led his team to climb the Great Wall once, and left behind this photo which looks like a story.
Later, he explained in the interview with Yang Lan, We have not climbed the Great Wall in Beijing for 14 months. We are very frustrated. From 1995 to the end of 1998, when we started our business, we felt that we should reap the harvest, but still the same way. We dont know where the road is and how to do it.
From Hangzhou to Beijing, from Chinas Yellow Page to Guofutong, and back to Hangzhou empty-handed from Beijing, At that time, a kind of inexplicable and wonderful tragedy made me cry. In the above book, Xie Shihuang recalled that there was a passing old lady to comfort, the young man wanted to be more open-minded, there were many good girls!
In 1999, the number of Chinese netizens exceeded 8.9 million, ranking eighth in the world.
This year, the portal website is still continuing the momentum of the previous upsurge and downs.
It was the same year that Google launched the LOGO we now know, and Jobs, who has returned to Apple for two years, announced a turnaround after several consolidations...
But it has nothing to do with Ma Yun.
On the fifth day of the new year in 1999, Ma Yun held the first meeting of Eighteen Arhats in Hangzhou Lake Garden District. He still talked for nearly three hours, but Peng Lei recalled, Everyone turned their eyes and couldnt figure out what Ma Yun was going to do.
Years later, the flower bud of the first Alibaba employee after 18 Arhats remembered the scene when she knocked on the door of Alibaba. It was like an Internet cafe, where computer wires were entangled and piled up, office supplies were messy, and there was a smell of smelly feet when the door opened.
Ma Yun said in the interview with Yang Lan that if he accidentally reached out and stopped the most expensive taxi, he would turn his head back and make a scratch.
Even so, shortly after, Ma Yuns 500,000 yuan start-up fund, which was gathered by all of us, soon ran out. Ali also encountered the problem that all start-up companies would encounter, lack of money.
After Ali went public, Peng Lei said that Ma Yun had been rejected 37 times by VCs, but he was always happy to tell everyone that he had rejected 37 times.
Ali immediately spent 80,000 yuan to advertise in Qiantang Evening News after getting the financing, but it was funny to know that the company did not have a business license until he went to the newspaper, so he rushed to the Bureau of Industry and Commerce to get the license on September 10, 1999. This day is Teachers Day and Ma Yuns birthday.
A few days later, a company in Hangzhou posted an advertisement in the newspaper, offering a huge annual salary of 100,000 yuan. Its job advertisements still seem deafening today: When is it not now? Ifnotme, Who?
The company was Alibaba, which had just been established for four days.
Shortly afterwards, Cai Chongxin became chief financial officer of Ali. He quit his $700,000-a-year-salary job and went to Ali to get a 500-yuan monthly salary. After his appointment, he not only introduced the management concept of large international companies into Ali, but also became Alis God of wealth.
In Cai Chongxins first month in office, Ali took $5 million from Goldman Sachs and $20 million from Softbank three months later.
At this time, the enterprise is expanding, and Ma Yun has a large villa near Room 202. Here, Ma Yun has determined the development route of Alibaba B2B. On March 4, the following year, Ali was happy to move to Huaxing Science and Technology Building in 2000.
At that time, Ma Yuns vigor was not only just on the cover of Forbes, but also organized the famous West Lake sword theory under the witness of Jin Yong.
But with the advent of the millennium, the worlds Internet bubble began to break down, and many famous enterprises encountered major crises. Ali was no exception. Ma Yun declared a state of emergency.
By this time, Ali had spent $15 million on two financing, and Ma Yun eventually came up with a remedy: layoffs and savings. From the beginning of the new year, Ali made the biggest layoffs before that, with the total number of employees reduced from 300 to about 100, and monthly burning down from $2 million to $500,000. That means Ali can get 18 months of breathing.
At that time, company employees knew two famous slogans, one was kneeling for the winter, the other was that if all Internet companies were going to die, Ali hoped it would be the last one.
This is the first large-scale business team in Alibabas history. It is known as the Iron Army in China. It promotes its business by the most traditional way of walking through the streets and door-to-door. In addition to making Ali struggle out of the cold winter of the Internet. There is also a business strategy to delineate the market by ground pushing, which was developed to the extreme in the war of 020 more than a decade later. And a number of Chinese Internet entrepreneurs have emerged from the supply of iron, such as Cheng Wei, Gan Jiawei, Lu Guangyu and so on.
After surviving the crisis, the next step is to make money. In the book Alibaba Forty Avenues, Guan Mingsheng and Ma Yun climbed the Yuhuangshan Mountain in Hangzhou in 2001. There was a temple on the mountain. They took melons and bought a cup of tea, which rushed from morning to afternoon. He and Ali conspired to make money in 2002.
In October 2002, Gan Jiawei returned to Hangzhou from Suzhou by taxi. He paid 40,000 yuan, which realized Ma Yuns big goal of making one yuan.
The next day, Ma Yun immediately gathered his employees to announce the news. At six oclock last night, we had made a full profit. By yesterday, we had not only made a dollar, but also made 500,000 yuan.
In 2003, when Ali realized a daily income of 1 million yuan, eBay bought eBay, accounting for 80% of Chinas C2C market. Whitman, president of eBay, said China would be eBays largest market in the future, investing hundreds of millions of dollars in China. At this time, Chinese people are no longer familiar with online shopping.
Although Alibabas B2B business model developed well at that time, Ma Yun realized that eBay would rob Alibaba users in China sooner or later.
On the evening of April 7, 2003, Sun Tongyu, Jiang Peng, Duolong and others were called to the office by Ma Yun and signed an English contract. A week later, Sun Tongyu led the team to move to the lakeside garden, closed to perform a task, and created a C2C website, which was later Taobao. At that time, Ma Yun came almost every week to meet on the lawn of the community.
Shortly afterwards, Taobao Online and eBay were at war. This war was called the battle of ants and elephants by Ma Yun.
EBay bought the keywords about Taobao in the search engine, and when searching for Taobao, an advertisement Want to Taobao, to eBay appeared. Even across from Taobaos office, eBay eBay billboards were erected. Every day, Taobao people hold a big banner at the entrance of eBays headquarters in China, which says, Join Taobao and your salary will rise three times at once. Ma Yun also frequently shows various kinds of programs in the United States and says, We will give them bitter food.
With the free policy of Taobao for three years and three years, eBay had no choice but to withdraw from the Chinese market at the end of 2006. But the competition strategy used in this war has also continued to this day, harvesting usersexclusive market with preferential policies, and then exploring cash flow patterns. But mostly chicken feathers.
After Alipay launched the function of secured transactions, Ma was particularly excited about the need to separate Alipay from the establishment of a company. Can we set up a company with several accountants? Many employees questioned.
One day shortly after, Lu Zhaoxi, who was Hawking Chinese suppliers in Guangdong, received a call from Ma Yun. Do you know PayPa? Lu Zhaoxi said with a blank face that he didnt know. Ma Yun said that was right.
Subsequently, Lu Zhaoxi, who did not know finance and technology, became the first general manager of Alipay. Alipay also gradually entered the lives of the people, and a single family, until the Spring Festival of 2014, WeChat red envelopes were born, one night spent Alipay finished 10 years of work. Ma Yun called it a Pearl Harbor Sneak Attack, but thats the last word.
At that meeting in 1999, Ma Yun put forward the companys target of listing in 2002. With the gradual resolution of domestic and foreign problems, Alibaba B2B business was listed in Hong Kong in 2007.
Suddenly, everyone was shocked by this change. It is rumored that Sun Tongyu could not restrain himself when he spoke and cried loudly.
Ma Yuns move was interpreted by a voice from the outside world as the right to release troops with a glass of wine. But no one knows the inside story.
Ma Yun openly explains three reasons: first, they are too tired to take a rest; second, the company needs the best management team in the world to send these people out to study, so that they can improve themselves; third, they go to Harvard and Peking University to study, maybe three or four years later, they will come back full of strength and passion. Become our successor and play a greater role.
Since then, Jianghu did not know Sun Tongyu for a long time, until the rise of Jiduo. Because Sun Tongyu is not only one of the four largest investors, but also the second largest institutional shareholder, Gao Rong Capital.
But at that time, Huang and Jiang Fan were still working at Google. They had not become the leaders of Todo, Taobao and Tianmao. More than ten years later, they were regarded as their biggest rivals by the outside world.
When Sun Tongyu cried, Ali had a group of new people joining him. In the summer of 2007, Cai Chongxin dug up Zhang Yong, a grand vice president and CFO, to serve as Taobao CFO. In the same year, Ali joined the wells, then went to Alipay in 2009 and worked for Alipay CFO.
On April 10, 2008, Taobao Mall officially announced its launch. When it went online, Alibaba held an online ceremony in West Lake International. Ma Yun said that the turnover of Taobao Mall would exceed that of Taobao Mall. He also said that he saw a good land in Xixi Wetland. He said that he saw a lot of fish jumping on it.
The land Ma Yun saw is todays Alibaba Brazilian Creek Park, but on April 10, 2008, many people were cool in their hearts. They thought they would move to the Binjiang Park in Alibaba and buy a house nearby in advance. Years later, they will find that they bought the right house. (Source: Alibaba Forty Avenue)
A month later, Wang Jian and Ma Yun, who worked in Microsoft Asia Research Institute, met for the first time at the Zhejiang Youth Group Ying Association on the 30th Anniversary of Reform and Opening-up. Before that, Wang Jian was a professor and doctor in the Department of Psychology of Zhejiang University.
Next year, Aliyun was established in a low-key way. Ma Yun drew Wang Jian to do Aliyun, but he didnt know what cloud computing could do. He just knew Ali should start doing it.
At that time, cloud computing in the world had been monopolized by Google and Amazon. More than a decade later, Aliyun ranked third in global market share.
Mr. Aliyuns first client was Hu Xiaoming, who was not President of Aliyun at that time. Im still working in the bank.
Also this year, because Taobao Mall has been tepid, the original person in charge resigned, Zhang Yong had to take over. In order to make Taobao Mall better, he had an idea that through an activity or an event, consumers would remember the name of Taobao Mall, just like the promotion of Thanksgiving Day in the United States. Thats the original source of Shuang11.
In that year, 27 businesses participated in Shuang11, selling 52 million yuan, 10 times as many as usual. By the second year, 711 brands participated and sales reached 936 million yuan.
In 2011, Taobao was split into three companies: Taobao, Taobao and Taobao Mall.
Since the Spring Festival, Alibaba has broken out the fraud door incident, with 1219 foreign trade suppliers suspected of fraud on its B2B business platform in 2009 and 1107 foreign trade suppliers suspected of fraud in 2010. This also led to the resignation of Wei Zhe, COO Li Xuhui, then CEO of Alibaba B2B Company, and a large number of middle-level and even grass-roots staff have left their jobs.
The Chinese supply department was severely punished. In the book Rereading, they described the situation at that time: they admitted their mistakes, but also believed that the consensus of Wearefamily had been broken. They cant really come up with a better solution than Ma Yun, but they still feel a bit chilly. An old man said, My eldest brother has been moving bricks on the construction site to support his family. Work harder, Low harder. Suddenly one day, the bricks could not be moved, or some work-related injuries were mentioned, and then they were abandoned. Its a little bit like that.
B2B customer fraud incident is over, Ali once again fell into the whirlpool of public opinion, this time the social influence is greater.
On October 10, Taobao Mall issued announcements on renewal of business invitation and regulation adjustment, adjusting technical service fees and shop default margin, with a maximum increase of 150%. This led to great resistance from businesses, Anti-Taobao Alliance members of more than 50,000 people, Alis headquarters was besieged several times.
Eventually, the Ministry of Commerce intervened. On the 15th, Taobao Mall introduced five new policies to resolve the crisis. At the beginning of 2017, Zhang Yong mentioned it in an interview with the media. He confessed that the biggest mistake he made in the decision-making process would be the besieging of the city in October.
In 2013, Alis business was divided into 25 divisions, which were entrusted to the Strategic Decision-making Committee and the Strategic Management Executive Committee. Ma Yun said in an e-mail to all employees that this was the most difficult organizational and cultural change since Ali was founded.
On September 19, 2014, Ali successfully launched an IPO with a market value of more than $200 billion. In the road show, Ma Yun joked, When I came to the United States to ask for $2 million, I was rejected by 30 VC companies; today I came again, just to get more money back.
In December 2015, the Group upgraded its organization in an all-round way, launched the strategy of Greater China and Taiwan to realize the independent development of cloud computing, novice birds and Alis mother. In July 2017, Ali set up five new executive committees. In 2019, Ali launched its second IPO in Hong Kong. Ali has entered a period of steady development.
A year ago, Ma Yun announced today that he would no longer serve as chairman of the board of directors of the Group from September 10, 2019, when Zhang Yong, the current CEO of the Group, would take over.
Author of Alibaba Forty Avenues: Zhao Xianchao
This is Ma Yun: Chen Wei
Ma Yuns Lakeside Garden 16 Building 1 Unit 202 Author: Late Universe
A Special Documentary Film of Oriental Space-time: A Scholar Ma Yun
Interview with Yang Lan-Dialogue with Ma Yun
Yangtze River Crocodile
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Source of this article: Responsible Editor of State Celsius: Yao Liwei_NT6056