On August 2, a volunteer scored rubbish throwers by scanning two-dimensional codes in Hangzhou.
On August 7, in Shanghai, volunteers supervised residents to classify and dispose of garbage.
On July 31, Chengdu, a shopping mall entrance is equipped with garbage sorting bins, and garbage sorting knowledge is marked at prominent locations. A12-A13 Photo/Visual China
When people look back at 2019 at the end of the year, garbage classification is undoubtedly one of the hot words of the year.
In June this year, the Ministry of Housing and Construction and other departments issued a circular on the comprehensive implementation of domestic waste classification in cities at the prefecture level and above, bringing 46 cities across the country into the fast lane of compulsory waste classification. In July, the Shanghai Municipal Domestic Waste Management Regulation came into force, which is known as the most stringent regulation in history.
Over the next two months, several cities, including Beijing, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Chongqing and Shenzhen, quietly accelerated their efforts to classify garbage and put it in an important position of urban management. The goal of 46 key cities for waste classification is to basically build a domestic waste classification and treatment system by the end of 2020.
Waste classification, after years of unrest, officially ushered in a comprehensive battle.
Accelerating the Classification of Waste in Several Cities
With just finished hamburger boxes and Coke cups, Lao Deng and Xiao Jin stood at Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station, somewhat at a loss.
Although they have heard about the new rubbish classification rules in Shanghai, they are still worried about the rubbish on their opponents when they come to the actual combat site on a business trip from Beijing to Shanghai.
Lao Deng turned around in the exit hall and found two trash cans standing on the corner. He led his colleagues over with enthusiasm and began to look at the classification guidelines on the trash cans. Dirty plastic bags belong to dry garbage, disposable tableware is also dry garbage. According to the guidelines, the two men carefully put the garbage on their hands into the corresponding trash can.
The first time to throw garbage in such detail, it feels fresh, and its really difficult. We have to study it carefully later. Lao Deng was worried that he would spend the next few days in the strict classification of garbage.
Two months after the compulsory classification of municipal solid waste was officially implemented in Shanghai, Lao Deng and Xiao Jin, who lived in Beijing, began to make every effort to promote the amendment of the Regulations on the Management of Municipal Solid Waste. Nearly 15,000 peoples congresses at the municipal, district and township levels entered the streets and communities, focusing on whether the total amount of municipal solid waste should be controlled and whether disposable articles should be used or not. We should prohibit such problems and listen to grass-roots opinions.
Like Beijing, Hangzhou has also initiated the revision of the law. In August, the newly revised Hangzhou Municipal Solid Waste Management Regulations was formally implemented. The most intuitive change is to change the kitchen waste habitually called by Hangzhou residents into perishable waste.
Guangzhou began to pilot fixed-time and fixed-point garbage sorting and bin removal in corridors, and issued a new guideline for sorting and putting domestic garbage. Chongqing has made great efforts to solve the problem of dividing up before mixing up. It has specifically clarified the different main bodies and modes of collection and transportation for classified transportation.
At the provincial level, on August 21, Zhejiang issued the first provincial standard for municipal solid waste classification in China, unified classification facility identification and clear operation norms. Shaanxi, Guangxi and other provinces (regions) began to deploy garbage classification work. Hubei and Heilongjiang took the lead in putting the classification of rural domestic waste on the agenda.
Following the implementation of Shanghai Municipal Domestic Waste Management Regulations, many provinces and municipalities across the country have embarked on the fast lane of waste classification, which is related to a joint announcement issued by the Ministry of Housing and Construction and other nine departments in June this year.
The circular clearly indicated that since 2019, municipal solid waste classification has been launched in cities at prefecture level and above. By 2020, 46 key cities will have basically built domestic waste classification and treatment systems. Other prefecture-level cities have achieved full coverage of municipal solid waste classification in public institutions, and at least one street has been basically built into a demonstration area of municipal solid waste classification.
The timetable has been clear, and the first year of national municipal solid waste classification has arrived.
A New Breakthrough of Waste Classification
The first attempt to classify domestic waste in China was in 2000. Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Xiamen and Guilin were designated as pilot cities for sorting and collecting domestic waste by the former Ministry of Construction.
For the purpose of resource recovery, there are a lot of problems to be studied in this pilot round of waste classification, from classification categories, standards, follow-up treatment methods, facilities, supporting policies and comprehensive utilization schemes. According to Mao Da, an environmental researcher and Dr. Environmental History of Peking Normal University, when the traditional waste disposal idea is not completely overturned, the conventional disposal technology can also cope with the problem, naturally it will not change much.
The way we used to think about garbage was wrong. Guangzhou environmental public welfare personage Baso Fengyun said. Another identity of Basso Fengyun is Luo Jianming, a member of Guangzhou Municipal Waste Disposal Public Advisory Committee. He paid close attention to and participated in the garbage classification work in Guangzhou for many years. He believed that the reason for the slow progress of garbage classification in Guangzhou was the same as many big cities in China.
The neglect of garbage in the past has accumulated a lot of historical problems. For example, the long-term waste dump and burning, extensive waste disposal methods, the reduction of available land and resources in cities is becoming more and more obvious. In the past ten years, there have been many objections to the construction of new treatment facilities in accordance with the traditional ideas.
Waste sorting is a protracted battle. But this round of garbage sorting sweeping across the country is more like a siege breakthrough.
On the morning of the first day of the implementation of the Regulations, Shanghai issued a rectification bill to a hotel and a shopping mall for the mixed and unknown classification of garbage.
Shanghai is not the first city in China to legislate on waste classification. Chinas first local regulation to regulate garbage disposal in the form of legislation, Beijing Municipal Domestic Waste Management Regulations has been implemented since March 2012. From 2015 to 2019, Hangzhou, Yinchuan, Guangzhou, Yichun, Taiyuan and Changchun successively promulgated municipal solid waste management regulations, which clearly included waste classification in the framework of the rule of law. Other key cities of garbage classification have also introduced relevant management measures or implementation plans.
But garbage classification in these cities has little effect.
Mao Da believes that although some cities have legislated on garbage classification, there are differences in garbage classification among cities in terms of classification methods, penalty standards and enforcement efforts. Chinas garbage classification history is not long. For a long time, garbage classification seems to have been a thing that should be done but not so. Anxious things, so that the implementation and implementation of laws and regulations will be greatly discounted.
In addition to the classification of dry and wet garbage which has aroused a heated debate among the whole people, Shanghais astonishing call stems from the unprecedented force of enforcement. After at least four years of deliberation and deepening, at least since 2015, garbage classification has been given priority in the construction of ecological civilization, and has been strongly promoted at the top level many times in recent years. Mao Da said.
Nowadays, for Guangzhou or any other rapidly developing Chinese city, garbage classification has evolved into a breakthrough battle of having to divide.
How to Classify to Better Drug for Symptoms
Garbage classification is irresistible, but first of all, we need to understand what and how to divide, in order to make the right medicine. For many years, Xu Haiyun, chief engineer of China Urban Construction Research Institute and deputy director of the Environmental Sanitation Engineering Technology Research Center of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Construction, has always believed that this work must adhere to the problem orientation.
This is also the first thing most ordinary people want to understand.
When I heard that Shanghai was going to start garbage sorting, Xiaoyuan, who had just arrived in Shanghai in June this year, was a little worried. Not unwilling to share, but how to share so much garbage in the end. What makes Xiao Yuanyuan even more painful is that she has never heard of the dry garbage and wet garbage proposed by Shanghai.
Download the official classification guidelines, add classified query procedures, play classified games, friends circle brush to the garbage classification articles to have a look, in order to become a garbage classification top students, Xiaoyuan has done enough homework.
Dry garbage and wet garbage are essentially no different from other garbage, kitchen waste or perishable garbage commonly used in the past. But the formulation of dry and wet is not common, and the classification of some articles in this sub-method does not accord with common sense, which naturally leads to many misunderstandings.
In Xu Haiyuns opinion, the expression of garbage classification should be easy to understand grounding gas. Compared with the dry and wet classification in Shanghai, he prefers to use the expressions of kitchen waste and other garbage.
This is not only the national unified standard, but also the simplest and most common classification method at present. Among the 46 key cities for garbage classification, most cities also adopt the quartile method for garbage classification, which includes hazardous garbage, recyclable garbage, kitchen waste and other garbage.
Some cities also use the term perishable garbage. Hangzhou newly revised Hangzhou Municipal Waste Management Regulations, the most intuitive change is to replace kitchen waste with perishable waste.
Compared with kitchen waste, perishable garbage is more inclusive, including kitchen waste, catering garbage and even gardening garbage; compared with wet garbage, perishable garbage is a more precise concept, corresponding to the subsequent degradation of garbage, is also a more popular expression, resulting in less controversy. Mauda explained.
Xu Haiyun believes that under the premise of the commonly used quarterly method, cities that classify garbage can try to classify more precisely according to their local habits and treatment technologies.
Mao Da agrees. Pilot classifications of various types can be reduced to a community, a unit, for example, by purchasing services from social enterprises, to achieve more accurate classification, and will not resist classification for fear of mistakes.
The purpose of classification is to reduce the amount of waste from terminal incineration and landfill, and to reuse the available waste, taking into account the convenience of residents. Luo Jianming also believes that cities can have their own considerations on how to divide garbage, and that the basis may be to look back and think, Why should we divide garbage?
Comparing with developed countries, the shortboard of our current domestic waste classification is hazardous waste collection, focusing on recyclables, and the difficulty is kitchen waste. The problem of hazardous waste classification and collection is how to establish a system, how to accurately classify and collect recyclables, and how to find a way out of fertilizer for kitchen waste classification and collection. In Xu Haiyuns opinion, the willingness of participants and the way out of garbage are the key to solve this series of problems.
Where is the way out of sorted garbage
Sometimes, participantswillingness is directly linked to the way out of garbage.
No points can be learned, learned to remember the formation of habits, naturally good points. Wen Wen, who lives in Guangzhou, said that she would like to know more about where is the good garbage.
Does my sorted garbage have fine treatment? Is it reused? Does it have environmental effects? This is the motivation and significance of my garbage sorting. Wen Wen feels that everyone who participates in garbage sorting has the right to know the answer.
Taking Shanghai as an example, how to transform the short-term effect of social mobilization into the long-term effect of residentsvoluntary classification depends on whether the subsequent garbage disposal is in place. Mao Da said.
According to the latest data released by the Shanghai Municipal Greening and Appearance Administration, by the end of August, the amount of recyclables recovered had reached 4,500 tons per day, which was five times higher than that at the end of 2018; the amount of wet garbage was 9,200 tons per day, which was 1.3 times higher than that at the end of 2018; and the amount of dry garbage disposal was less than 15,500 tons per day, which was 26% lower than that at the end of 2018.
However, as of mid-June, 982 wet garbage trucks and 3135 dry garbage trucks were deployed and coated in Shanghai. The incineration capacity of dry garbage was 19.3 million tons per day, and the utilization capacity of wet garbage was 5050 tons per day.
The significant increase in wet waste is a great test for the planning and construction of garbage handling and terminal disposal in Shanghai. Not only Shanghai, but also the construction of terminal treatment facilities is a collective test for this round of cities that implement waste classification. Luo Jianming said.
The contradiction is that what is classified must have a place to go, which means that we need to deal with related enterprises, technology and sites, and even a perfect industrial park. The final problem we face is the need for land. However, in the past, urban or regional planning mostly focused on the planning of industrial, commercial and residential areas, but rarely considered how many treatment facilities and sites needed to be built to meet the scale of garbage disposal generated by the regional population when the size of the city reached a certain level. Ordinary cities are still like this, and big cities with small land and small money are even more difficult.
In a proposal for waste classification in 2016, Luo Jianmings Livable Guangzhou Eco-environmental Protection Center mentioned that the establishment of recycling industry bases and kitchen waste treatment bases should be encouraged according to local conditions.
Xu Haiyun believes that the construction scale of kitchen waste collection and disposal should be determined by demand. According to how much land can be used for organic composting, the scale of kitchen waste collection and disposal should be decided, so as to avoid the failure of utilizing ways after kitchen waste collection in Korea and Japan, and finally the lesson of having to go back to the treatment plant.
It can be confirmed that the construction of treatment facilities matching the front-end classification is accelerating.
In July this year, the Ministry of Housing and Construction made it clear that in 2019, 46 key cities planned to invest 21.3 billion yuan to speed up the construction of domestic waste treatment facilities.
The Ministry of Housing and Construction also issued a circular this year clearly pointing out that according to the amount of dry waste generated after classification and its trend, burnable is burned and buried is buried to speed up the construction of domestic waste treatment facilities mainly based on incineration. In view of wet garbage, we should accelerate the construction and renovation of wet garbage treatment facilities, comprehensively solve the problem of disposal of perishable garbage such as kitchen garbage and garbage from farm and trade markets, and strictly prohibit kitchen garbage from feeding pigs directly. At the same time, we will speed up the construction of domestic waste clearance and transportation and recycling system, and encourage the construction of domestic waste disposal industrial park.
Punishment should aim at the pain point of throwing garbage.
At present, another problem facing city managers is legislation.
With the implementation of garbage classification, whether in the city that is amending the law or in the city that is about to legislate, one of the focuses facing is the punishment of throwing garbage in violation of regulations.
Among the 46 key municipalities for domestic waste classification, most of the cities that have already legislated have made clear the penalties for individual illegal throwing in the relevant regulations. Twenty-one cities, such as Shanghai, Chongqing and Hangzhou, have made it clear that they can impose a fine of up to 200 yuan without classifying or dumping garbage at will.
In this regard, Xu Haiyun believes that unclassified dumping and random dumping should be distinguished. Waste classification is relative. Everything in other trash cans can be, and everything can be. It is difficult to enforce the law if the classification is accurate or not.
In his view, the punishment should focus on dumping rubbish secretly and throwing rubbish on the ground. In some developed countries, because of metering and charging other garbage, in order to reduce expenditure, it is unavoidable to steal garbage, especially in the period of low income, the problem is particularly prominent.
In China, a big obstacle to garbage classification is that there is no pain in throwing garbage. Luo Jianmings opinion is affirmative as to whether the non-classification should be included in the punishment. Without classification, there will be no punishment. On the contrary, classification will cause more trouble. Who would like to do it?
In some countries with high garbage classification level, such as Japan, domestic garbage is not classified and will not be cleaned up; in Korea, there are cameras at garbage disposal sites to monitor whether residents are classified or not. Luo Jianming said that punishment for illegal dumping of garbage is difficult, which exists all over the world. However, whether it depends on grass-roots supervision or spot check of law enforcement, punishment must be regarded as a very serious matter and carried out.
Mandatory measures are indispensable if garbage classification is to be carried out to the end. Without pain, the status quo can not be changed.
Another focus is the garbage collection system. The implementation plan of domestic waste classification system promulgated in 2017 proposed that the charging system for waste treatment should be improved according to the polluter-pays principle. In 2018, the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) made it clear that by the end of 2020, a comprehensive garbage collection system would be established in cities throughout the country, and metering and differential charges would be implemented for qualified residents.
However, the Shanghai municipal solid waste management reform has not implemented a charging system for household solid waste. It only stipulates in principle in the regulations that gradually establish a charging system for household solid waste treatment based on quantity and classified pricing.
Deng Jianping, director of the Shanghai Municipal Bureau of Greening and Appearance, explained that the time is not yet ripe.
Luo Jianming suggested that it is necessary to set up a system of charging according to quantity and classified fees. Who produces who pays, more produces overpayment, different kinds of fees have different prices, in order to mobilize the change of social habits.
Circular Economy Behind Waste Reduction
As the founder of the Zero Waste Alliance, Mao Da also talked about another concept related to waste classification: source reduction. This is beyond the category of garbage classification, but I think that garbage management should put the source reduction first.
This coincides with the attitude of some young people towards garbage. Considering the time cost of garbage sorting, I prefer to try to reduce garbage generation in daily life, such as challenging to produce only one can of garbage a month. Guangzhou girl Momo believes that this may be more environmentally friendly than classification.
The pony working in Shanghai knows this very well. Since the implementation of garbage classification in Shanghai, his most intuitive change is: no takeout.
After the garbage classification, the residential area will be put into operation regularly and at fixed points. But as a996worker, he often misses the required time to throw rubbish. The pony feels that it is too troublesome to separate the garbage, so it can reduce the garbage production and the frequency of garbage dumping.
Preventing garbage from its source is not only an individual act. In some European countries, promoting the reduction of garbage from its source is part of the circular economy and has formed a legal system. Mao Da believes that preferential policies and economic incentives in waste management should also be rationally allocated to front-end links to reduce waste generation.
Referring to the European Union and some European countries, producers using recyclable or reusable packaging, enterprises with diversified treatment facilities and surrounding social enterprises that classify garbage will be given certain economic preferences, rather than fully invested in the end of the garbage treatment.
The circular economy policy with similar contents must be perfected and promulgated as soon as possible. Luo Jianming hopes that, no matter the legislation of waste classification or the supporting policies of waste management, unification will be formed in the future, and land support, recycling fund and circular economy will be able to realize docking in waste management.
Such top-level design is certainly difficult, just like garbage sorting, many people find it difficult. But Luo Jianming believes that confidence should be maintained.
He remembered a girl he had met in Guangzhous Pearl River New Town.
She carried a bag of garbage in her hand, but did not stop when she passed the trash can until she came to a row of sorted trash cans. She stopped, opened the plastic bag, dumped the garbage in the kitchen waste bin, and threw the plastic bag into other trash cans. It was 2013 when garbage sorting was not alarming, and Luo Jianming has kept this record up to now. Over the years, I believe that there have been people who insist on classification in their lives, and more and more people will participate in it. Its something worth sticking to. Source: Xu Meng-NN7485, Responsible Editor of Beijing Newspaper
She carried a bag of garbage in her hand, but did not stop when she passed the trash can until she came to a row of sorted trash cans. She stopped, opened the plastic bag, dumped the garbage in the kitchen waste bin, and threw the plastic bag into other trash cans.
It was 2013 when garbage sorting was not alarming, and Luo Jianming has kept this record up to now. Over the years, I believe that there have been people who insist on classification in their lives, and more and more people will participate in it. Its something worth sticking to.