Effective social policy measures to solve the deep-seated structural problems of society are the basis for Hong Kong society to get out of the predicament and turbulence.
Inequality in income distribution aggravates the disparity between rich and poor
The conflicts of interests caused by the unfair distribution of social income are the focus of social harmony. Hong Kongs Gini coefficient in 2016 (0.539) is far higher than the international warning line established by the United Nations (0.4).
The inequity of income distribution in Hong Kong is mainly reflected between industries and classes. Capital is increasingly monopolizing income distribution and labor factors are becoming more marginalized. Despite the strong support of the central government, Hong Kongs society has not constructed a reasonable benefit distribution mechanism. The main beneficiaries are the business sector and the vested interest class with fixed assets (holding real estate). The grassroots citizens can only be the long tail in the labor market, which aggravates Hong Kongs labor income and inherent property. The dualistic structure is in contradiction with the structural contradiction between the employer and employer.
At the level of initial distribution, about 40% of Hong Kongs labour force (about 1.3 million people) belongs to the working poor with monthly incomes ranging from HK$10,000 to HK$20,000, a large proportion of whom are young people (including graduates from universities and other vocational schools) who have just graduated into the workplace.
According to the Global Salary Report 2018/19 issued by the International Labour Organization, Hong Kongs real wage growth rate between 2007 and 2018 was only 0.1%, ranking the penultimate in the Asia-Pacific region, far behind the growth rate of the mainland of 8.2%. At the redistribution level, these groups became sandwich class because they could not enjoy welfare benefits. Its called N Nobody.
Distorted distribution system, coupled with the gap between the rich and the poor caused by the stagnation of livelihood policies and the solidification of strata, induces the rioters and opposition parties to politicize the economic and livelihood issues, incite social opposition, and increase a series of social risks such as mass incidents and deterioration of social security.
Housing and health care are difficult to meet the needs of the public
Under the management concept of small government and big market, the contradiction between the shortage of public service supply and the growing public demand in Hong Kong has existed for a long time, and the imbalance between housing and health care resource allocation is very prominent. The long waiting time is a major criticism point for many government-funded services in Hong Kong, such as public homes for the aged, public hospitals, public housing rental and so on.
The supply of old-age services is insufficient. At present, about 40,000 elderly people are waiting for beds in government-funded homes for the aged. In 2016, more than 6,000 elderly people died while waiting for beds in homes for the aged, which showed that the shortage of public beds was serious and the demand for public beds was obviously in short supply. The aging of population also brought about an increase in demand for medical services. Public hospitals had a long waiting time and the average waiting time for admission in emergency rooms was more than 15 hours. In addition, the collective increase in outpatient prices in public hospitals in Hong Kong in 2017 reflects the tremendous financial pressure and resource shortage facing the current medical system in Hong Kong.
According to Xinhua News Agency, in the face of the aging population in Hong Kong, the SAR Government, the Hospital Authority and many non-governmental organizations have been working to improve hospice care services in Hong Kong. On 6 September, the Food and Health Bureau of the Special Administrative Region Government began public consultation to hear the legislative proposals of the public on pre-set medical instructions and hospice care for patients who died at their residence as of 16 December.
On the other hand, in 2017, Hong Kong became the eighth most affordable city in the world. Its free market makes speculation rampant. High housing prices make it difficult for more than half of the citizens to get on the bus (own private houses). Only 49.2% of the families own the houses they live in. Even low-rent public housing units provided by the SAR Government (referred to as public housing) are difficult to meet public demand because of the high application threshold and insufficient land supply. By the end of 2016, about 150,000 public housing applications had been filed. The average waiting time for ordinary families was five years, while nearly 210,000 people in Hong Kong were living in mini-flats less than 100 feet and with high rents, suffering from poor living conditions.
In view of this, on September 6, the SAR Government launched several livelihood measures, one of which was the announcement that land near Chuntian Street and Chongzhi Street in Tugua Bay would be reclaimed for residential purposes. This helps alleviate the housing shortage.
Lack of institutionalized social security in peoples livelihood and welfare affairs
In the fields of health care, pension and housing, Hong Kong society has always lacked a social security system based on the concept of social insurance, which is funded by the government, enterprises and employees. It mainly relies on a single individual responsibility standard rather than a common social responsibility-based welfare supply model.
At present, the compulsory private occupational retirement insurance system (MPF) which only covers employees is used to replace the pension policy that can benefit the whole people. Among the five pillars of old-age security advocated by the World Bank, Hong Kong society has long been short of the first pillar (public pension insurance) of pay-as-you-go type.
Furthermore, the establishment of a one-time non-institutionalized subsidy mechanism led by the Caring Fund by the Hong Kong Social Welfare Department makes it difficult for the needy to obtain long-term relief through such schemes as low-income peoples allowance and low-income working family allowance, which are only used as temporary relief measures rather than long-term assistance. Poverty mechanisms.
The crux of Hong Kongs social governance problem lies in the fact that the public has not yet enjoyed the fruits of economic development fairly and that the monopoly of consortia has not been intervened effectively. Hong Kongs prosperity and stability cannot be separated from the optimization and improvement of peoples well-being and social welfare. In order to find out the deep-seated and structural contradictions in the current predicament, we should hammer out the social security policy, expand the coverage and benefits of various livelihood projects, make up for the loopholes and vacancies in these public services, and truly realize the achievement of development is shared by the people. Several livelihood measures introduced by the SAR Government on September 6 have shown that it is beginning to realize the deep social contradictions behind the chaos and is seeking to better solve the livelihood problems. We hope that Hong Kong can get out of the mess and return to stability and prosperity as soon as possible. Source: Responsible Editor of Beijing Newspaper: Chengyu_NBJ11143
The crux of Hong Kongs social governance problem lies in the fact that the public has not yet enjoyed the fruits of economic development fairly and that the monopoly of consortia has not been intervened effectively. Hong Kongs prosperity and stability cannot be separated from the optimization and improvement of peoples well-being and social welfare.
In order to find out the deep-seated and structural contradictions in the current predicament, we should hammer out the social security policy, expand the coverage and benefits of various livelihood projects, make up for the loopholes and vacancies in these public services, and truly realize the achievement of development is shared by the people. Several livelihood measures introduced by the SAR Government on September 6 have shown that it is beginning to realize the deep social contradictions behind the chaos and is seeking to better solve the livelihood problems. We hope that Hong Kong can get out of the mess and return to stability and prosperity as soon as possible.