Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, August 25 (Xinhua) -- After raging in the Amazon Rainforest for about three weeks, the world finally paid attention to this lungs of the earth. However, another invisible fire that should also attract world attention has been burning for seven years, that is, the dispute between Amazon and Amazon.
In 2012, Amazon applied to the Internet Name and Digital Address Distribution Agency (ICANN) for the generic top-level domain name. amazon, which aroused unanimous opposition from Brazil and other Amazon basin countries, thus opening a long-standing dispute.
Seven years of controversy are finally in sight
In the summer of 1994, Amazon founder Jeff Bezos set up an online bookstore called Cadabra in his garage. But then Bezos decided to rename it because of its twisted pronunciation and similar pronunciation to corpse in English. He opened the dictionary and looked at the word Amazon. The term Amazon, which represents the most diverse region on Earth, has become the companys new name. The company reopened in July 1995 and was translated into Amazon in Chinese.
The suffixes of websites such as.comand.org, which are familiar to Internet users, are generally referred to as generic top-level domain names. With the opening of the worlds first round of new generic top-level domain name applications, Amazon applied for the amazon domain name in 2012. Because of the same spelling in English, the application was strongly opposed by eight members of the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO).
In July 2013, ICANN made an inadmissible decision on Amazons application. Amazon then applied to a third-party independent arbitration panel for review and won in July 2017, which recommended ICANN to make a objective, independent judgment. In October 2018, ICANN lifted its inadmissibility status and restarted its application review process. Until May this year, ICANNs board of directors announced that Amazons proposal on public interest commitments was acceptable.
In June this year, the Colombian Government submitted a review application to the ICANN Accountability Mechanism Committee. According to the regulations, ICANN changed Amazons application to suspended status. In mid-August, the ICANN Accountability Mechanism Committee rejected the request for review. It is expected that ICANN will provide a final solution to the review application by October at the latest.
Hong Yu, director of Communication Research Institute of Zhejiang University, told Xinhua News Agency in an interview recently that ICANNs board of directors is likely to maintain its decision in May. Judging from the application process announced by ICANN, there is no way to stop the application at present.
The difference is how to share.
The distribution of domain name management power has been at the core of the dispute between the two sides over the past seven years.
ACTO Member States believe that territorial interests give them the right to participate in the management of.amazondomain names. As early as 2012, Brazil and Peru, with the support of the Governments of Bolivia, Ecuador, Guyana and Argentina, submitted to the Government Advisory Committee (GAC) for early warning, pointing out that if the domain name was exclusively owned by a private company, activities related to the protection and promotion of the Amazon River biological community for the public interest were undertaken. It will be directly affected.
In 2018, ACTO members agreed that Amazon would use domain names related to commercial interests, such as books. Amazon and kindles. amazon, while domain names related to cultural heritage would be managed by ACTO members.
ACTO Executive Director Carlos Alfredo Lazari Tesera believes that common domain names are a reasonable demand. In an interview with Xinhua News Agency, he said: Amazon values domain names that are beneficial to its business plan, while South American countries value names related to cultural and geographical heritage such as river names, names of primitive tribes.
Amazon agreed to not use terms that are of primary and recognized significance to the culture and heritage of the Amazon region as domain names, but suggested that South American countries use abbreviations of national names plus a combination of .amazon, such as Brazils use of .br.amazon. To this end, Amazon is willing to provide nine additional domain names for use by eight Member States and ACTO organizations.
Over the past seven years, despite concessions made by both sides, there are still differences on the more specific scope of the common domain name management, and no final agreement can be reached.
Capital or culture first?
To gain support from the Amazon countries, Amazon offered compensation programs, such as providing about $5 million worth of E-Reader and web hosting services to South American countries, which were rejected by South American countries.
Its like going back to the time when the Americans were just discovered, trading small mirrors and other worthless objects for gold with the natives. Razali said.
Following the Andean Community Summit held at the end of May this year, the Presidents of Peru, Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia issued a joint statement saying that ICANNs decision set a serious precedent by placing private commercial interests above national public policies, aboriginal rights and the protection of the Amazon River.
News Background: Interpretation of Terms Related to Amazon Domain Name Dispute
In 2012, Amazon applied to the Internet Name and Digital Address Distribution Agency (ICANN) for a generic top-level domain name. amazon, which aroused unanimous opposition from Brazil and other Amazon basin countries, thus opening a long-standing dispute.
What is domain name
Domain names are composed of two or more sets of American information exchange standard codes or national language characters. Each group of characters is separated by dots. The right-most character group is called top-level domain name or first-level domain name, the penultimate group is called second-level domain name, and the penultimate group is called third-level domain name, and so on.
What is a top-level domain name
Top-level domain names are mainly divided into two categories: national and regional top-level domain names, and generic top-level domain names. The former is based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) national and regional codes. At present, more than 200 countries have allocated top-level domain names, such as.cnin China and.jp in Japan.
The latter represents a group of names and organizations, including.gov,.edu,.com,.org. Until 2012, there were only 22 generic top-level domain names. In order to promote diversity, encourage competition and improve the effectiveness of the domain name system (DNS), in June 2011, the Internet Name and Number Assignment Agency decided to open new universal top-level domain names worldwide. The first round of applications for new generic top-level domain names is from January 12 to April 12, 2012. Since the Amazon region is not a top-level domain name category in the country or region, . amazon belongs to the generic top-level domain name.
What is GAC Early Warning
The Government Advisory Committee (GAC) is the voice Department of ICANN representing the government and international governmental organizations. Its main responsibility is to provide advice to ICANN on public policy issues.
The application for top-level domain name will be published publicly on ICANN. Meanwhile, a 60-day consultation period will be launched. During this period, GAC may issue an early warning notice about the application. The notification indicates to the applicant that one or more governments believe that the application may be sensitive or problematic.
GACs early warning is only a notice, not a formal objection, and it will not directly trigger the process of rejection of applications. After receiving the GAC warning, the applicant may choose to withdraw the application for partial refund or to continue the application.
Case of Domain Name Dispute
Patagonia is mainly located in Argentina, a small part of which belongs to Chile. Patagonia is not a national or regional top-level domain name, but can be applied as a generic top-level domain name.
After the American outdoor brand Patagonia submitted its application for the generic top-level domain name to ICANN, both the Argentine and Chilean governments submitted GAC warning. Patagonia withdrew its application after the dispute arose.
Source: Responsible Editor of Xinhua News Agency: Qiao Junjing_NBJ11279