On March 14, 2019, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas issued the Drug Feed Additives Withdrawal Plan (Draft for Opinions). Chinas Feed Anti-Resistance was officially put on the agenda.
Antibiotic use in poultry and livestock: used as growth promoter at feed end
Almost half of the antibiotics produced worldwide are used in China. The antibiotics used in China are half used by people, half used by animals, and a lot of the antibiotics used by animals are transferred to the food chain, and ultimately people are still suffering. Wang Qiang said.
In June 2015, scientists first published a list of antibiotic use and emissions in China. The Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, showed that the total use of antibiotics in China was 162,000 tons in 2013, about 160 times that in Britain. Of the 162,000 tons of antibiotics, 52% are for veterinary use. In addition, about 78,000 tons are used by human beings, and the per capita usage is more than five times that of European and American countries.
The use of antibiotics has led to the gradual evolution of drug resistance in some bacteria. In February 2017, a paper published in Nature-Microbiology, a journal of Nature magazine, was carried out by a team from China to conduct a sample survey of farms, slaughterhouses and supermarkets in China. It was found that genes that make bacteria resistant to carbapenems and myxins are prevalent in poultry production processes in China. u3002 Carbapenems are thiomycin secreted by Streptomyces cattleya. These drugs are used to treat severe bacterial infections and are also one of the means to combat multi-drug-resistant bacteria. Myxomycin is an antibiotic extracted from Paenibacillus polymyxa in 1947.
It is understood that the antibiotics used in animals are mainly divided into two parts, one part as feed additives, and the other part is used at the breeding end. There are significant differences in the role of antibiotics in these two parts. Wang Qiang introduced that, in theory, antibiotics are a kind of medicine, and the main function of drugs is treatment. Therefore, when it is used in the breeding stage, it is used as an effective way to control diseases and restore the overall body function and growth level of animals.
Why is the use of additives at the feed end problematic?
Zhang Jihai, deputy general manager of Shanghai Meinong Biotechnology Co., Ltd., also said in a public report that, objectively speaking, antibiotics have a remarkable effect on bacteriostasis and growth promotion, and the cost-effectiveness is better. However, in recent years, when used in feed, they are often abused, overused or not used in accordance with the drug withdrawal period, resulting in many problems in bacterial resistance, environmental pollution, food safety and so on.
On July 10 this year, the Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Bureau of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas of China issued Announcement No. 194 of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas. Since January 1, 2020, all kinds of feed additives for growth-promoting drugs except traditional Chinese medicines have been withdrawn, and the corresponding approval number of veterinary products and the registration certificate of imported veterinary drugs have been cancelled. Since July 1, 2020, feed manufacturers have stopped producing commodity feed containing growth-promoting drug feed additives (except traditional Chinese medicine). At the same time, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Areas will change the management mode of feed additives for anti-coccidiosis and traditional Chinese medicine drugs, instead of issuing the approval number of adding words to veterinary drugs, the approval number of adding words to veterinary drugs will be changed.
Veterinary antibiotics will continue to increase in the short term
The feed side began to promoteanti-resistanceand may be used more when the back end (breeding side) controls the disease. It took Europe about two or three years to do so, and then it fell down quickly. Wang Qiang told Peng Mei News (www.thepaper.cn) that whether it is European experience or the problems that China will encounter soon, there will be an abnormal phenomenon in the short term after forbidding and resisting feed, and the overall use of antibiotics will rise. As far as the whole industry is concerned, it is unrealistic to forbid resistance in an all-round way. The ideal process should be to gradually reduce resistance to replace resistance.
Whether in Europe or in the Asia-Pacific region, such as Japan and Korea, they have gone through such a process. The first step is to reduce the amount, especially from the front end. When the peripheral environment improves as a whole, the whole system can be reduced. Wang Qiang said that the success of resistance reduction depends on whether resistance substitution works. This is the same for humans and animals. To reduce drug dependence, we need to improve the overall level of nutrition and immunity.
Zhang Yongliang, a professor at South China Agricultural University, once told the media that the initial implementation of forbidden resistance to feed might lead to a decline in the production level of animal husbandry and a substantial increase in the cost of animal husbandry. In addition, the absence of antibiotics in feed may lead to a substantial increase in antibiotics for treatment on the farm and the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry. The total amount may not decrease in the initial stage of forage resistance.
Antibiotics are mostly produced in China, so the cost of using antibiotics in China can be very low, and it has certain effects. Therefore, it is easy for the industry to further increase the usage without increasing the high cost. Wang Qiang said that in this way, it is necessary to replace products more competitive.
According to the information from the 60-year Summit Forum on antibiotics held in early 2019, China has become the worlds largest producer of antibiotics with an annual output of 147,000 tons, of which 247,000 tons are for export. 75% of the worlds penicillin industrial salt is produced in China, 80% of cephalosporins and 90% of streptomycin antibiotics are produced in China.
Wang Qiang told reporters that Chinas feed anti-resistance time line has been clear, and Dismann is also promoting special projects in China. For foreign enterprises, on the one hand, we can learn from the successful experience of foreign countries, and we need to make the global things into a more meaningful localization scheme for China. On the other hand, Chinas aquaculture industry is becoming more and more mature, and the compliance requirements are becoming more and more stringent. On the contrary, for the compliance enterprises themselves, it can reduce costs and enhance competitiveness.