This summer, Chinas scientific and technological innovation bulletins are spreading frequently and exciting.u2014u2014
The successful launching of the high-speed maglev test prototype with a cool shape and a speed of 600 kilometers per hour marks a major breakthrough in the field of high-speed maglev technology in China.
Long March No. 3 B launch vehicle is launched and the 46th Beidou navigation satellite is put into orbit, which will further enhance the coverage and service performance of Beidou system.
The intelligent stamping production line developed by Jinan No. 2 Machine Tool has entered the European market for the first time, and has become the turnkey project of Peugeot Citroens Soxhaw factory in France. It has been highly praised by the local media.
In todays world, scientific and technological innovation has become the key support to improve the overall national strength and the powerful leader of social production and lifestyle change and progress. Whoever holds the bull nose of scientific and technological innovation and who takes the first step in scientific and technological innovation, will be able to seize the first chance and win the advantage. Since the Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, General Secretary Xi Jinping has made a series of important expositions on scientific and technological innovation, which has guided and inspired the vast number of scientific researchers to devote themselves to scientific research and tackle key problems, thus providing increasingly powerful innovative momentum for Chinas high-quality development.
Faced with the complex and changeable external environment, many people have doubts: What is Chinas scientific and technological competitiveness? Will changes in the external environment hinder the pace of innovation in China? What is the future of science and technology in China? Around these problems, the reporters conducted in-depth interviews.
Look at the status quo
After years of accumulation, China has become a major scientific and technological power with important influence.
The strength of science and technology is mainly embodied in basic scientific research ability and high-tech R&D level. In recent years, China has made tremendous progress in both areas. Wang Xiaodong, Director of the Beijing Institute of Life Sciences, was deeply impressed by the scientific and technological changes in the motherland. Our researchers are often invited to international conferences to give academic reports, and five companies have been founded to develop new drugs based on their original discoveries. This was unthinkable before.
Xiaobeisheng Reflects the overall leap of Chinas scientific and technological strength.
Since the Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the scientific and technological undertakings of our country have made intensive efforts and accelerated leaps and bounds, which have brought about significant changes in history, integrity and pattern. Major innovative achievements have emerged one after another. Some frontier directions have entered the stage of parallel and leading. The scientific and technological strength is in the leap from quantity accumulation to quality, from point breakthroughs to system capabilities. An important period of promotion. Zhao Zhiyun, Secretary of the Party Committee of the China Institute of Science and Technology Information, believes that China has become a major scientific and technological power with important influence.
u2014u2014 The conditions for scientific research are not the same as before.
R&D expenditure increased from 89.6 billion yuan in 2000 to 196.57 billion yuan in 2018, and became the second largest R&D investor in the world after the United States in 2013.
I think the current conditions of scientific research in China are different from those in the past. It is an inevitable trend to make more world-leading achievements in China. After graduation, Dr. Liu Zhen, a researcher at the Institute of Neuroscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences, could have applied for work in top laboratories abroad, but he finally chose to stay.
u2014u2014 Major achievements are emerging.
In the latest list of the top 500 supercomputers in the world, China ranked first with 219, and Shenwei Taihu Light and Tianhe No. 2 continued to rank first.
In January 2018, the Chinese Academy of Sciences team announced that somatic cloned monkey babies Zhongzhong and Huahua had been bred for the first time in the world. In January 2019, they successfully constructed a batch of rhythm disorder rhesus monkey models with the same genetic background for the first time in the world, thus creating a new era of disease cloned monkey models quantitatively and standardized. Opening, which has important value for disease research and drug research and development.
u2014u2014 Scientific and technological innovation promotes high-quality development.
In 2018, there were 181,000 high-tech enterprises in China, 130,000 small and medium-sized technology-based enterprises, and 1.78 trillion yuan of technology contracts in China. The contribution rate of scientific and technological progress increased to 58.5%.
Economic data released by the National Bureau of Statistics in the first half of the year show that the value-added of high-tech manufacturing industry increased by 9.0% year on year, faster than that of industries above scale by 3 percentage points, accounting for 13.8% of all industries above scale, an increase of 0.8 percentage points over the same period of last year; from January to May, strategic emerging services, high-tech services and science and technology services Operating income increased by 12.5%, 12.3% and 12.0% respectively.
Help enterprises to increase revenue and improve quality.
Make production intelligent and efficient.
Scientific and technological innovation has become the primary driving force for leading high-quality development. Pan Jiaofeng, president of the Institute of Scientific and Technological Strategic Consulting, Chinese Academy of Sciences, said.
Look at the impact
Open cooperation is the trend of the times, and changes in the external environment have limited impact on Chinas scientific and technological innovation.
Since last year, due to changes in the international situation, Chinas scientific and technological innovation has encountered some new situations. Huawei and other high-tech companies have been listed in the entity list of the Export Control Regulations by the United States, which has been unreasonably suppressed. In addition, some normal scientific and technological cooperation and cultural exchanges have been restricted.
It is undeniable that developed countries are at the top of the global high-tech chain. The extreme pressure exerted by individual countries on the industrial chain, supply chain and innovation chain will have adverse effects on some leading enterprises and institutions. But in the long run, these impacts are temporary and can not contain the good situation of the development of science and technology in China.
u2014u2014 Our country has a relatively complete system of scientific and technological innovation and strong breakthrough ability.
In April 2015, four National Supercomputing centers in China were banned from buying foreign high-end chips. However, a year later, Chinas supercomputer Shenwei Taihu Light, based on fully autonomous processors, reached the top of the worlds supercomputing. With the rapid development of Chinas overcalculation, its only a matter of time before China builds a wider overcalculation ecosystem, said Stromal, an expert on overcalculation at the International Overcalculation Conference held recently.
Our economic system and innovation system are resilient enough to withstand the test through the efforts of the innovators themselves and through open cooperation. Wan Jinbo, a researcher at the Institute of Scientific and Technological Strategic Consulting, Chinese Academy of Sciences, said.
Not long ago, CBInsights, an internationally renowned research institute, published a survey report showing that China accounts for 10 of the 32 AI unicorns in the world. Driven by the market of intelligent education, our country is at the forefront of the world in the field of speech recognition technology. The realistic demand of intelligent security makes our country take the lead in the field of face recognition technology, and the leading enterprises such as Shang Tang, Yun Cong and Yitu are born.
The enormous market potential has supported the application and experiment of many technologies. Nowadays, the innovation of 5G, industrial internet, artificial intelligence chip and other fields is in full swing in China. Globally, Chinas demand for innovation is incomparable, which will be an important driving force for Chinas scientific and technological development. Pan Jiaofeng said.
u2014u2014 We should concentrate our efforts on the institutional advantages of major events and ensure that science and technology tackle key problems and focus on the countrys major strategic needs.
In May 2017, the first flight of the domestic large aircraft C919 was completed, and China became one of the few countries in the world capable of producing large aircraft. In December 2018, the Beidou 3 basic system was declared completed, and China is the third country in the world with autonomous satellite navigation system. In recent years, major breakthroughs have been made in the fields of aviation, new energy vehicles and tunneling equipment in China, which are closely related to the efficient decision-making system of concentrating efforts and allocating resources rationally.
Our countrys perfect public R&D system can guarantee the promotion of strategic planning layout system and the effective implementation of major projects. Practice has proved that this is the organizational advantage of scientific and technological innovation in China. Wan Jinbo thinks.
u2014u2014 The problem of choking neck is a firm determination of Chinas independent innovation.
Throughout the history of modern science and technology, everyones achievements in scientific research are accomplished on the basis of others, and high-tech industries are developing rapidly in competition and cooperation. Artificial obstruction of scientific and technological exchanges violates the law of scientific and technological development, and does not conform to the trend of history. It is impossible to last for a long time. Wang Xiaodong said.
Before the ZTE and Huawei incidents, many people thought that chips, like ordinary electronic components, could be bought directly from the market. With this lesson, more and more Chinese people are now spontaneously concerned about domestic chip technology and industry. Ni Guangnan, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, said that technological regulation would only further stimulate the motive force of independent innovation in China and force the upsurge of independent innovation.
The experts interviewed believed that in the short run, the neck-jamming problem would hinder the current development of science and technology in China, but in the long run it would also be a great opportunity to enhance the ability of independent innovation, and open cooperation is still the trend of the times.
Seeking the Future
Continue to deepen the reform of science and technology system, fully tap the potential of innovation and stimulate innovation vitality
Faced with external risks and challenges, it is the most powerful response to do our own thing well and to develop science and technology better and faster in our country.
u2014u2014 We will continue to deepen the reform of the scientific and technological system and fully tap the potential of innovation.
In April this year, Tsinghua University issued Several Opinions on Improving the Academic Evaluation System, focusing on reversing the tendency of papers, hats, titles, academic qualifications and awards-only in academic evaluation and stimulating innovation. As soon as the reform document of breaking the Five Ways was released, it aroused heated discussion in academic circles.
In order to achieve the leap from first-class to super-first-class, Chinas scientific and technological competitiveness must be driven by reform. Wen Jirong, Dean of the School of Information, Renmin University of China, said.
Experts interviewed pointed out that in order to build a world powerful country in science and technology, we should further deepen reform, establish a more efficient mechanism for the use of funds, a more scientific evaluation system for science and technology, a more reasonable salary system and a more perfect intellectual property protection system as soon as possible, further create an environment that encourages innovation, embraces innovation and fully stimulates science and technology. As the first productive force, it has great potential.
Xue Qikun, a professor at Tsinghua University, first observed the quantum anomalous Hall effect in the world, which won the first prize of the National Natural Science Award in 2018. The first prize of the National Natural Science Award, which has been vacant for 9 times, has been unbeaten in blossom for six consecutive years, marking a significant improvement in the overall level of basic research in China.
Basic research should have the spirit of removing mountains from foolish people, insisting that one generation, two generations, even generations, do a good job of one thing. Xue Qikun said.
The dredger has a long history, and the deep-rooted one has luxuriant leaves. As the source of the whole scientific system, the importance of basic research is self-evident. Only when we have a deep reserve of basic research, can we grasp the leading power of technology development, the right to formulate technical standards, and gain the pioneering advantage of innovation. To strengthen basic research, we need not only to increase the investment of national financial and social capital, but also to pursue excellence with lofty aspirations of scientific researchers, and to concentrate on research with the spirit of bench to sit cold for ten years.
u2014u2014 Make great efforts to tackle key problems for a long time and realize the autonomy and controllability of key core technologies.
Not long ago, the Chinese Academy of Sciences University Grade 2019 undergraduates were surprised to find that a Longxin 3 chip was embedded in the hardest core notification when they received the admission notice. Although small, the chip is the soul of the information industry, and it is also the result of 18 years of innovation by Longxin team. General chips, commercial aircraft, third generation nuclear power, high-speed rail trains... In recent years, as the key core technology of the most important tool of the country, the supporting role of high-quality economic and social development has become increasingly prominent.
Time is changing, opportunities are still in me. Only by improving the ability of key core technology innovation can we firmly grasp the initiative of scientific and Technological Development in our own hands. The key core technology is not unattainable, we have enough confidence. According to Hu Zhijian, president of China Institute of Science and Technology Development Strategies, todays China, whether in terms of scientific and technological strength or economic foundation, is more equipped to break through key core technologies. As long as we continue to carry forward the spirit of self-reliance and hard struggle and unswervingly take the road of independent innovation, we will surely be able to achieve the autonomous control of key core technologies.
u2014u2014 We should firmly establish the strategic position of talent-led development and stimulate the innovative vitality of scientific and technological talents.
In Huaweis innovation front line, there are more than 700 mathematicians, 800 physicists, 120 chemists and more than 6000 experts from other fields. Up to now, Huaweis R&D personnel still maintain a proportion of nearly 50%. It is with its strong talent reserve that Huawei has the courage to cope with the storm without fear.
Hard power and soft power, in the final analysis, depend on the strength of talent. Without a strong talent team, any innovation is unsustainable. Professor Qiu Guanzhou, academician of Central South University, believes that facing the future, we should continue to promote the policy of loosening the bondage and reducing the burden for scientific and technological talents, form a more flexible talent management system, enable more scientific and technological talents to get reasonable returns through innovation, and lay a solid foundation for innovation to lead high-quality development and build a strong scientific and technological country in the world. The talent base.