Academician of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Psychologists who won all three awards
First, what are prejudices and stereotypes?
This is a convenient way for human beings to know the world. Compared with recognizing things one by one, people tend to classify things so as to recognize a class of things. This can save cognitive resources and is a shortcut.
Most stereotypes are formed at will, such as hearsay and mass media fiction. It is harmful to the individual because it deprives a person of the right to personal characteristics.
Basic attribution bias: In ambiguous situations, people are likely to make attributions consistent with their prejudices. Prejudice leads to certain types of negative emotions or stereotypes, which in turn reinforce prejudice.
For example, boys and girls are successful, but boys are attributed to their abilities, while girls are attributed to their luck.
Fourthly, why do some people hold the victim guilty theory: how to explain the tragic situation of victims? Its the victim, not the environment.
That is to say, if we want to admit frankly that the reason is situational, that is, to admit that the world is actually unfair.
But people wishfully believe that the world is fair, so they distort their understanding.
6. Some subtle effects of prejudice:
1. It leads to self-evident predictions: For example, if I thought you were a bad person (actually you are a very easy-going person), I would distance myself from you, and you reacted to my performance only by reducing contact with me, so I confirmed my idea.
In short, our expectations will lead us to act that can prove our expectations, which is self-evident prophecy.
2. Unnoticeable gender discrimination and socialization of gender roles: people have contradictory attitudes towards women, which can be divided into hostile gender discrimination and bona fide gender discrimination.
But essentially, they all assume that women are weak, but that the latter behaves differently because of their kindness.
1. Competition and conflict in economy and politics: resources are limited, and strong groups gain real benefits by plundering and slandering vulnerable groups;
2. Alternative attack: A frustrated person has a strong tendency to attack the source of frustration, but in many cases, the source of frustration is either vague (a policy) or too powerful, so they will anger and attack a weaker bystander, which is also called scapegoat theory.
3. Maintenance of status or self-image: create superiority by degrading others to maintain a good self-image, referred to as the weak draw knives to the weaker;
4. Personality bias: authoritative personality itself has a bias tendency, which can be traced back to family education;
5. Compliance with existing social norms: this is caused by conformity.