On July 3, the scene of Wednesdays blind date in Hongshan Park, Wuhan.
The traditional marriage concept of male university should marry, female university should marry is facing new challenges.
According to the data of the National Bureau of Statistics and the Ministry of Civil Affairs, the marriage rate in 2018 is only 7.2 per thousand nationwide, which is the lowest in nearly ten years. From the difference of different provinces, the lower the marriage rate is in the economically developed areas. In 2018, the lowest marriage rate in China was only 4.4 in Shanghai, 5.9 in Zhejiang was the penultimate, and the marriage rate in Guangdong, Beijing and Tianjin was also on the low side.
Whats wrong with this generation of young people? According to a new analysis by Professor of the Institute of Population and Development, Nankai University, who has been engaged in demographic research for more than 30 years, the fundamental reason for the general decline in marriage rate is the structural decrease in the number of married persons. At the same time, the increasing average years of education, high housing prices, fierce competition for employment, and the stronger independence of the younger generation have also become stumbling blocks in the way of young people getting married.
Later and lateru2014u2014
The age of first marriage has reached a record high
Peking University doctoral degree, height 1.72 meters, teaching in universities, Yu Xiaonan from childhood to most peoples eyes of the proud daughter of heaven. But as she passed 30 and approached 35, she noticed that parentspride in their daughters began to decline. They launched all kinds of relationships to arrange blind dates for the golden leftover girl in their family. Xiaonan said with a bitter smile, Maybe my parents felt they had a hard time holding a good hand, but they were going to smash it in their hands.
In universities, older unmarried young women are not uncommon. Many people have gone through the path of undergraduate, masters and doctoral studies. When they finally reached the peak of life envied by many people, they look around and find that there are few of their peers in life.
Yu Xiaonan felt that he did not have a high demand for his spouse. At least you should be able to chat with me and love reading. She has a good family. Her parents have bought her a car, prepared a house, and even said, If a boy is kind to you, you can not have a car in the house.
But Xiaonan thought that marriage should be balanced. Two people should have similar conditions in all aspects, so that they will not be imbalanced in each others heart, and there will be no big gap between the three views of the two people.
People all think that there are plenty of talented people in Colleges and universities, but when I entered the post, I found that many excellent male teachers had already been masters of the famous grass. After many blind dates, Yu Xiaonan found that although she looked highly educated and had a decent job, her chances of finding suitable partners in universities were greatly reduced because of her older age, higher requirements and small circle of communication.
The average age of first marriage is the highest in history. According to Yuan Xin, the latest statistics show that the average age of first marriage in China is about 25-26 years old, with cities reaching 26-27 years old and rural areas reaching 25 years old.
From the national point of view, the current age of marriage is concentrated between 24 and 30 years old. These people were born in 1989-1995, and the absolute number of births in these years is decreasing compared with previous years. The natural marriage rate will decrease when there are fewer married people, which is a basic reason.
According to the Shanghai Womens Federations Survey Report on the Development of Shanghai Women in the 40 Years of Reform and Opening-up, the average age of first marriage for Shanghai men and women was 30.3 and 28.4 years respectively by 2015, which was 5.0 and 5.4 years higher than 10 years ago, and was equal to the average level of the European Union. According to data released by Jiangsu Provincial Civil Affairs Department last January, the average age of first marriage in Jiangsu in 2017 was 34.2 years, including 34.3 years for women and 34.1 years for men.
The reason behind this lies in the improvement of the general level of education in the whole society. Especially for women, now in Colleges and universities, women with bachelors or masters degrees account for about half, and women with doctoral degrees account for nearly 40 percent. According to Yuan Xin, delaying marriage age and late marriage and late childbearing have become a common phenomenon.
In the past two years, the Tianjin Municipal Committee of the Youth League launched a brand activity of serving young peoples marriage and friendship - Youth has an affinity for lottery, which has become a hot spot. Zhang Jinghua, Minister of Youth Development and Rights Protection of Tianjin Municipal Committee of the Youth League, said that every time the online registration started, the admission tickets were snatched up and empty. There are always parents who call him voluntarily and ask to put their children in. Most of them are young women with high education, high income and high age.
A group of data intuitively illustrates the change of womens view of marriage: in 1990, only 0.6% of women aged 30-35 were unmarried, while today, 7% were unmarried, while the proportion of women aged 35-40 was increased from 0.3% to about 4%, all of them increased by more than 10 times.
Recently, members of the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress (NPC) called for amending the Marriage Law to reduce the legal age of marriage for men and women to 18, in order to save the continuing low marriage rate. The original new view is that this approach will not produce substantive results. At present, the marriage law has stipulated that marriage and childbirth can be achieved as long as the legal age is reached during university, but the reality is that the number of people who make such a choice is still very small.
Young people with strong independence
Liu Hao, born in 1981, is regarded by many as a leftover man.
Liu Hao is well-off and owns three apartments in Tianjins urban core area, two of which are top-class school district houses that are hard to find rising year after year. He has a stable job in a state-owned enterprise and no bad hobbies; he keeps fit every day and has a perfect figure rare among his peers.
Liu Haos ideal half should have a sweet face, gentle personality and harmonious family. It doesnt sound very demanding, but I introduced him to three girls and they all ended up with no illness. His cousin said angrily.
The first girl was shy. After they met, they talked a few words. The girl began to look down at her cell phone from time to time. Liu Hao felt that either she was not interested in herself, or she was not polite, and suddenly she lost her liking. The matchmaking scene turned into two people playing with their cell phone face to face.
After meeting the second girl, both sides expressed their interest in each other and kept in touch with each other by leaving a message. As a result, the girls response to the news was so slow that Liu Hao freaked out, Sometimes it takes another day to reply. Liu Hao asked her to come out to play on weekends. The girl replied, I like to sleep late. On weekends, I usually sleep for more than half a day and make appointments later. Several times, Liu Hao was a little angry. Why does she only think about herself and not care about other peoples feelings at all?
Liu Hao had a pleasant chat with the last girl and broke up after a few dates. The reason is that the girls dog is sick. They disagree and quarrel about the treatment of the dog. Liu Hao feels that his kindness is not appreciated, but he is complained. The girl feels that the boys speaking attitude is rough in reality, and chatting with Wechat is not like a person, and finally he is not happy and separated.
His cousin commented, Although hes 38 years old, hes still a child who hasnt grown up yet. But he also feels indifferent. Every day, after work, he exercises first. When he comes home, his parents cook the meals well. He plays games at night and chats with his friends by micro-mail. He doesnt feel bored at all.
Like Liu Hao, these young people who should be married now are the only-child generation. According to Yuanxin, these young people are born at the center of the family, so they show the characteristics of strong independence.
This characteristic is reflected in the culture of individualism, individualism is not equal to selfishness, we see that when the country encounters disasters and other difficulties, many young people in the 90s are particularly enthusiastic about donations. In his view, individualism in these young people refers to a strong sense of self, they pursue a comfortable, free and self-lifestyle; they have an attitude of enjoying the present and being responsible for themselves. At the same time, to some extent, it neglects caring for others and responsibility to the family.
Changes in communication and diversity of entertainment are exacerbating this uniqueness. In this era when a single network line can connect the world, the more intelligent the way of communication, on the contrary, it leads to less and less face-to-face communication. The rise of takeaway culture makes meals not necessarily accompanied by people, but can be delivered to the door with a little food ordered by mobile phones.
In recent years, a trend has been found in college recruitment interviews: some people have excellent resumes and very smooth communication by e-mail, but one to one face-to-face links can be judged as two people, showing silence and less words. Yuanxin said that this barrier to interpersonal communication in love will inevitably become a hard wound, Do not talk, how love ah?
At the same time, the modern way of life and entertainment is becoming more and more diverse, especially in big cities, there are numerous options to fill the spare time. This also gives people living in it a feeling: not necessarily have a family, in order to enjoy the joy of life brought by the family.
The increasingly perfect social security system has subverted the traditional concept of raising children and preventing old age. The whole society is also moving towards tolerance, and all kinds of lifestyles can be accepted by the public. No marriage does not mean no companions. It is no wonder that people used to have moral constraints in small groups. Now the bigger the city is, the more open it is to everyone.
Being forced to be singleu2014u2014
High House Price, High Employment Pressure and High Cost of Living
Lin Wenhao, a graduate student from Jiangxi Province, has worked for five years in an insurance company in Shanghai. The pressure of performance appraisal is so great that he cant breathe. He worked hard to save money at a rate far behind the soaring housing prices in Shanghai, and dazzling astronomical figures kept him from doing so.
What makes him feel unattainable is Shanghai girlscriteria for spouse selection: housing, car, stable work, and one more important thing - Shanghai Hukou.
In Shanghai and Beijing, two international metropolises with the highest degree of modernization in China, the issue of household registration has become a barrier for some young people to enter into marriage.
Guo Meijie, who claims to be a big girl in Beijing, was instilled by her parents from an early age with the idea that if we dont lack housing and money, we will find Beijingers. In her fathers words, which old Beijing family has few apartments? Find a Beijinger who is close to his parents. The younger couple dont need to struggle at all.
Guo Meijie, 33, was given the opportunity to exchange studies abroad when she went to university. After graduation, she returned home to work at the headquarters of a foreign company in China and earned more than 20,000 yuan a month. She often goes to dinner, shopping and shopping with her friends. When she has a vacation, she goes on a go-and-go trip. Shes living a good life. Cant marry reduce the quality of life she has?
With the development of urbanization in China, the threshold of marriage is rising. The cost of living in economically developed areas is relatively high, and soaring house prices have deterred more and more young people from looking forward to marriage. No house, no car, no money all become the fetters of marriage. The increase of these economic desires forces many young people to accumulate certain wealth in order to consider marriage.
Behind the accumulation of wealth, the competition for employment is becoming more and more fierce. Statistical data show that in recent years, Chinas working-age population has decreased, but China is still in the plateau platform of labor supply. Every year, the labor force population aged 15 to 59 remains at more than 900 million, and by 2040, the labor force population will not be less than 800 million. This means that employment pressure will persist for a long time, and fierce competition for employment will also lead to the delay of marriage.
Meanwhile, Chinas fast-growing big cities have attracted 288 million migrant workers, more than half of whom were born after 1980, to seek opportunities for development. Such a large number of young people are flowing on the territory of China, which also reduces the probability of marriage to a certain extent and reduces their chances of falling in love. At the same time, choosing to marry means having to bear the cost of raising children, which also contributes to the decline in their marriage rate.
In addition, Yuanxin also mentioned the unbalanced sex ratio at birth. Since the 1980s, China has accumulated more than 30 million leftover men over the past 30 years. From the perspective of marriage, these people are born without the corresponding half.
If there is a disdain chain in the marriage market, then most leftovers tend to be high-knowledgeable, high-income, at the top of the disdain chain; while leftovers tend to be low-educated and low-income, at the bottom of the disdain chain, and the two groups of people are fundamentally unlikely to match.
In 2018, the Youth League Central Network Film and Television Center published a survey report on contemporary youth groups views on marriage and love. The survey shows that for if you have not found the ideal marriage partner, what will you do? 69.53% of young people choose to wait until they find the ideal person to marry; 15.61% of young people choose to remain single; 9.34% of young people are willing to lower the standard of spouse selection; only 5.52% of young people choose to get married.
Faced with the current situation that the marriage rate drops again and again, many experts believe that it is inevitable for the economic and social development to reach a certain stage, and there is no need to worry too much. In the original view, whether late or unmarried, are young peoples choices from their own reality. The society should respect more and give young people more choices.
Source: Luo Chongwei_NB12082, responsible editor of China Youth Daily