China will first explore Mars in 2020! Four questions about how difficult Mars exploration is

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 China will first explore Mars in 2020! Four questions about how difficult Mars exploration is


The time of fire detection is exquisite, and the window period is once every two years.

Every two years, there will be a small upsurge of Mars exploration around the world.

Towards 2020, many Mars probes around the world have been fully equipped and ready for launch. Pang Zhihao, an aerospace expert, said that next year may be the most intensive period of Mars exploration in history. Five countries have announced plans for fire detection. In addition to China, the United States plans to launch a new Mars rover, ESA plans to launch ExoMars rover, and India and the United Arab Emirates plan to send a probe to Mars by 2020.

This is because, according to the position of the Earth and Mars, Mars will have the closest chance to the Earth every 26 months, which is also the best time window for launching Mars probe. Launching Mars probe at this time point will save a lot of fuel and shorten the arrival time. There will be a window period in 2020, about one month.

Interpretation 2: What is the difficulty of the first fire landing?

According to public information from relevant departments, Chinas first Mars exploration will achieve a soft landing, release Mars vehicles on the surface of Mars, and carry out inspection and exploration. Comparing with Change lunar exploration project, Change No. 1 and No. 2 carried out lunar orbiting, and Change No. 3 realized soft landing. Chinas Mars exploration will complete three steps of lunar exploration once.

Pang Zhihao introduced that before that, only the United States had accomplished both round and fall in one Mars mission. Europe had tried round and fall twice, and all of them ended in failure. China plans to complete three major tasks of circling, falling and patrolling in a Mars mission, which is very difficult.

The biggest difference between Mars exploration and lunar exploration lies in the great distance. The monthly average distance is 380,000 kilometers, while the nearest distance is 55 million kilometers, and the farthest distance is 300 million to 400 million kilometers, which has a very high demand for the ability of measurement and control. It is analogous to shooting a golf ball out of Paris and landing it in a hole in Tokyo.

Faced with the difficulties of fire detection, China has done a lot of preparatory work, and several successful lunar exploration missions have laid an important technical foundation. Firstly, launching a Mars probe requires a high-thrust launch vehicle, and the Long March 5 rocket in China already has such capability; secondly, for ultra-long-distance measurement and control, China has built a deep space measurement and control station, and has achieved more than 100 million kilometers of measurement and control in Change-2 expansion mission; thirdly, the success of lunar exploration has helped. China has laid the foundation in the fields of landing and patrol technology.

Interpretation 3: What should China do for the first time?

Explore the past and present life information of Mars.

Ouyang Ziyuan said that there are many ancient riverbeds on the surface of Mars, which proves that there were rivers before, but now there is no natural water on the surface. China will explore the distribution of groundwater on Mars.

Zhang Rongqiao, chief engineer of Chinas first Mars exploration mission, has previously introduced that the first Mars exploration mission will explore the shape, soil, environment and atmosphere of Mars, and study the distribution of water and ice, physical field and internal structure on Mars.

Nuclear power rockets, transfer stations, environmental renovation are needed, waiting for revolutionary technology.

With SpaceX founder Elon Musks Relentless Promotion of Mars Immigration, the science fiction proposition seems within reach.

But in Pang Zhihaos view, it is very difficult to immigrate to Mars. Manned landing on Mars has not yet been realized, and immigration to Mars is only at the conceptual stage.

Some people in the astronautical field have proposed the use of nuclear-powered rockets, which may solve these problems. Pang Zhihao said that the current speed of conventional rockets is 20,000 kilometers per hour, while nuclear-powered rockets can reach more than 80,000 kilometers per hour, and can reach Mars in a month or two. But the development of nuclear power is very difficult. It is very difficult for human beings to land on Mars in the 1930s.

In addition to the vehicle rocket, human landing on Mars may also need a transit base. The Moon is the best option, which requires the construction of the base in advance. In addition, Mars needs to be transformed into an environment suitable for large numbers of people before immigration.

[Background

Last September, at the sub-forum of the First World Public Scientific Quality Promotion Conference on Space Exploration and the Future of Mankind, Li Guoping, Director of the Department of Systems Engineering of the National Space Administration, made an official announcement. China will conduct two Mars exploration missions in 2020 and 2028, and then return the samples.

Li Guoping said that Chinas deep space exploration project initially identified four missions. The first mission is Mars Exploration, which is scheduled to launch Mars Explorer in July 2020. It is expected to reach Mars in 2021 after 10 months of flight, land on the surface of Mars and conduct patrol exploration. Subsequently, a second Mars exploration mission is planned around 2028, and Mars soil is collected and returned to Earth.

The Chinese Academy of Space Technology, affiliated to China Aerospace Science and Technology Group, introduced at the meeting that the Academy is organizing the development of the above major engineering tasks and will give full play to the advantages of space engineering technology and support the competent departments at all levels of the country to accelerate the unmanned lunar research station, asteroid exploration, Mars and Jupiter exploration, solar system. Planning and implementation of a series of follow-up major projects such as Marginal Exploration and Interplanetary Exploration.

Proofreading? Fan Jinchun