The triumph of Change I around the moon detector

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 The triumph of Change I around the moon detector


A schematic map of the moon flying around the moon

Like most spacecrafts, Change I consists of satellite platforms and payloads. It is based on the structure and propulsion system of the Dongfang red 3 artificial earth satellite platform. There are three main reasons: one is that the platform has a large load carrying capacity, its configuration layout can meet the demand of the lunar exploration payload, and the two is the propulsion system of this earth static platform. The orbital maneuver ability of the foot can meet the track design requirements of multiple orbit changes after the super earth synchronous transfer orbit. Three it is very mature and highly reliable. It has been successfully used to develop more than 10 satellites and has sufficient adaptability and modification ability.

Because Change No. 1 is mainly used to detect the moon by remote sensing, it also fully inherits the existing mature technology and products of the earth observation satellite of No. 1 and No. two, and has made adaptable transformation, which is more than the original artificial earth satellite platform in orbit, measurement and control, guidance and navigation and control system, thermal control system and so on. It has its own unique features. The so-called adaptive transformation is to inherit innovation and break through a number of key technologies. For example, three key technologies such as trisomy technology, orbit design and ultraviolet sensor have been conquered.

The so-called trisomy orientation means that Change 1 can always align the scientific instruments on the moon at the same time. The solar cell wing is always aligned with the sun, the directional antenna is always aligned with the earth, so that the lunar surface photos will continue to be photographed, and the light is continuously obtained, and the results of the detection will continue to return to the earth in time. Chang moth 1 uses three axis stable control mode to realize the direction of the lunar surface with the scientific instrument of the star. The solar cell wing is always directed to the sun by the way of the sun sensor and the one dimensional rotation of the driving mechanism. The directional sky line is always directed to the earth by the dual axis drive mechanism, and the moon is solved. The problem of three body orientation in the detection process.

A schematic diagram of the principle of trisomy orientation

UV sensor is an optical attitude sensor, which is used to measure the lunar attitude of Change I. It has its own characteristics relative to the infrared sensor on the artificial earth satellite. Stable infrared radiation is stored in the earths atmosphere, so artificial earth satellites use infrared sensors to detect the earths infrared radiation to control the attitude. But this sensor can not be used for lunar exploration missions, because there is no atmosphere in the moon, so there is no stable infrared radiation. Studies have shown that the moon has stable ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, our country uses the ultraviolet sensor as the eye of Chang E No.1 to observe the moon.

Researchers test the moon UV sensor

Because there is no atmosphere in the moon and the temperature of the surface of the sun is influenced by the temperature of the surface is very large, it is inevitable to experience the lunar eclipse, so it is also a difficult point to develop the thermal control system of Change I. The general electronic equipment working for a long time in the environment above 50 centigrade is prone to failure, and some equipment, such as chemical batteries, are very inefficient at less than 0 C. Therefore, the inner part of Change 1 must be kept within the range of 10~45 degrees Celsius. After tackling the problem, the researchers developed a special thermal insulation clothing for Change No. 1, which is warm in winter and cool in summer. Especially when the lunar eclipse occurs, the thermal control subsystem should ensure that all the equipment on the satellite is in the normal operating temperature range. Since the installation of scientific detector in the Six Party of Change I is always facing the moon, the surface uses a special super heat insulation material, mainly to prevent the influence of infrared heat from the moon on the detector, while the other 5 surfaces of Change I use a special heat dissipation material. Enough to do the maximum amount of heat.

The gold foil outside of the Change I star is used for insulation

The star of Change 1 is cubic, with a size of 2000 millimeters, 1720 millimeters, 2200 millimeters, and a solar cell wing on each side, with a maximum span of 18.1 meters. Change No. 1 has a total weight of 2350 kilograms, and its design life is one year, running on the circular polar orbit of 200 kilometers away from the surface of the moon.

According to the scientific objective of Change I, 8 scientific instruments were loaded. The CCD stereo camera is used to obtain three-dimensional images of the lunar surface; the laser altimeter is used to measure the height of the lunar surface to Change I; the interferometric imaging spectrometer, gamma ray spectrometer, and X ray spectrometer are used to detect the chemical elements of different substances on the surface of the moon, and the first microwave detector used in the world is used to measure the lunar surface. The characteristics of the moons microwave radiation are used to retrieve the thickness of the lunar soil, and the solar energy particle detector and the solar wind ion detector are used to detect the space environment from the earth to the moon.

Scientific exploration instrument on Change No. 1. The upper row from left to right is CCD stereo camera / interferometric imaging spectrometer, laser altimeter, and microwave detector. The lower row from left to right is the gamma /X ray spectrometer, the solar wind low energy ion detector, the solar energy particle detector.

In July 1, 2008, Chang MOI one completed the acquisition of the full moon image data; in October 24, 2008, it achieved 1 years of life on orbit and completed various tasks. Since then, more than 10 tests have been carried out with Change 1. In order to explore the two phase of the lunar exploration project and accumulate experience in the process control and orbit determination of the moon, Change I was controlled to hit the rich sea area of the moon in March 1, 2009 and successfully completed a hard landing.

The Change No. 1 has been flying for 494 days, including 482 days of the moon, 117 days more than the original plan, 3 lunar eclipses during the flight, and returned to the 1.37TB effective scientific survey data, and a batch of scientific research results, such as the whole lunar map, the distribution of the lunar chemical elements, the mineral content of the moon, the distribution of lunar soil, the lunar soil distribution and the near space environment, have been obtained. There is a gap in Chinas lunar exploration.

The lunar surface 3D stereogram taken by Change 1

For example, the CCD stereo camera of Change I first realized 100% coverage of the lunar surface for the first time, making the full moon image made by China in the international advanced level in geometric registration accuracy, data integrity and consistency, image hue and so on; the data produced by the laser altimeter of Change I was made. The full moon digital elevation model with a discrimination rate of about 3000 meters has reached the international advanced level in precision and resolution. On this basis, the whole lunar three-dimensional digital topographic map has been made to reach the international leading level. The gamma ray spectrometer of Change I has obtained the full moon distribution and content of the 3 important elements of uranium, thorium and potassium. As well as the distribution and content of the local regions of the 5 important elements of magnesium, aluminum, silicon, iron and titanium, the average thickness of the lunar soil is estimated to be 5~6 meters and the helium 3 in the lunar soil is about 1 million tons by the data obtained by the microwave detector first used internationally. The Change I also obtained the space-time change map of the solar energy particles and the sun. Wind energy spectra and spatiotemporal maps show some unique physical phenomena in their interactions with the earths magnetic field and the charged particles on the moon. (Hang Tianren) this article sources: NetEase military responsibility editor: ye Zhi hair _NBJS6073 this article is the original NetEase manuscript, copyright belongs to NetEase all, without authorization can not be reloaded, the authorized media download and use of the agreement must indicate the source of manuscript: the violator will be accountable for the responsibility. .ep-statement{clear:both; float:left; line-height:2; font:12px/22pxSimsun; color:#666; margin-top:34px; background:url (http://cms-bucket.nosdn.127.net/411e05150f814d21b7b3f708b21ccd3520180313105138.png) no-repeat04px; text-indent:18px;}.Post_body.post_end_ad{margin-top:36px;

For example, the CCD stereo camera of Change I first realized 100% coverage of the lunar surface for the first time, making the full moon image made by China in the international advanced level in geometric registration accuracy, data integrity and consistency, image hue and so on; the data produced by the laser altimeter of Change I was made. The full moon digital elevation model with a discrimination rate of about 3000 meters has reached the international advanced level in precision and resolution. On this basis, the whole lunar three-dimensional digital topographic map has been made to reach the international leading level. The gamma ray spectrometer of Change I has obtained the full moon distribution and content of the 3 important elements of uranium, thorium and potassium. As well as the distribution and content of the local regions of the 5 important elements of magnesium, aluminum, silicon, iron and titanium, the average thickness of the lunar soil is estimated to be 5~6 meters and the helium 3 in the lunar soil is about 1 million tons by the data obtained by the microwave detector first used internationally. The Change I also obtained the space-time change map of the solar energy particles and the sun. Wind energy spectra and spatiotemporal maps show some unique physical phenomena in their interactions with the earths magnetic field and the charged particles on the moon.

(Hang Tianren)