The first type of special weapons for the formation forces is a mini-submarine named A Biao. The Japanese plan to send such submarines into the harbor to attack targets, and then retreat to designated waters to await submarine rescue. Its a good idea, but its very risky to do things under the eyes of the heavily fortified US army. It goes without saying that the only attacks that have been made have almost ended in failure. A typical action was that when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, it dispatched five A Bids, but it was funny that submarines navigating by compass soon lost their way under the water like headless flies after the compass broke down. Only one of the 10 crew members of the five submarines fled to shore and were captured by the US military. The submarines were salvaged by the US military. After the war, the remains of other submarines were found successively at the bottom of the sea.
In order to hide peoples eyes and ears, the Japanese Navy calls this kind of mini-submarine the target of anti-submarine bombing, namely the target of A. It has a total length of 23.9 meters, a diameter of 1.8 meters, a maximum of 3 meters, a drainage capacity of 47 tons, two crew members, a total of 101. The weapon consists of two torpedo launchers installed side by side at the front, launching 450 mm torpedoes.
A mini-submarine stranded on Oahu Island, Pearl Harbor. Captain Jiuju River and the man were captured by the U.S. Army. He was the first Japanese soldier captured by the U.S. Army in World War II. This submarine was involved in the attack on Pearl Harbor, Sydney Harbor, Australia and other operations. Several transport ships were sunk, and even British battleships were severely damaged, but overall the effect was far less than expected.
At this time, the crew in charge of the training of A Bid is Lieutenant Black Mubos Navy. When he was dissatisfied with the status quo of the micro-submarine force, he was worried about how to solve it. On October 15, 1943, his younger classmate, Lieutenant Renkoguanfu, was transferred to serve as a teacher under his command. They joined hands and began to study new weapons and tactics of war.
Black Mubos (above), Renkoguanfu (left below).
They think that if people drive torpedoes, the hit rate should be increased. So I turned my eyes to the Japanese Navys pride: the 93-type oxygen torpedo.
Type 93 oxygen torpedo.
They envisioned the addition of personnel cabins on the basis of Type 93 torpedoes, equipped with control devices and periscopes. Man-made guided device drives torpedo to hit enemy ship directly.
This heavy torpedo has 500 kilograms of explosives in its warhead, with a range of 22 kilometers at a maximum speed of 50 knots, and 40 kilometers at 36 knots of economic speed. And it uses oxygen as fuel, so the engine only emits carbon dioxide and water vapor, both of which are dissolved in water, so the track is difficult to observe. These characteristics enable the torpedo to launch from a distance and approach the enemys fleet in concealment to achieve surprise attack effect.
The two men excitedly completed the plan and handed it to the Navy Command, only to get a nose in the dust. Nagano, then Minister of Naval Command, moved out of Marshal Yokos legacy: The Navy is not allowed to use suicide weapons! They rejected their proposal.
They were still unwilling to take the risk of committing crimes on their backs or on their backs from the end of 1943. They took blood letters to talk to the officers of the Military Bureau and the Command. They even went to Tokyo to talk to the Minister of Navy of Shimada Fontaro. In response, the Navy senior responded: This plan is not adopted for the time being, but it can be considered.
Soon, in early 1944, the war situation became extremely unfavorable to Japan. The Japanese naval high-level officers who were forced into the corner remembered the design of Heimu and Renko. In February 1944, the military command ordered Wu Navy Factory to start developing manned torpedoes. Ejection escape devices are required to enable the crew to escape before the torpedo accelerates towards the target, but the device was not produced until the war was defeated, so Return to Heaven is essentially a suicide weapon.
Considering the convenience of mass production and cost reduction, the refitting process is simplified. Only the engine section of the 93 torpedo is left and the shell is added. The warhead and the gas storage tank are set in the front. The centre is empty to set up a crew seat, periscope, compass, control device and a small command platform with cabin doors.
The command deck of the manned torpedo Huitian (actually the door rectifier) extends a long pole as a periscope. The rectifier board is painted with chrysanthemum water pattern.
Taking the Type I with the largest production as an example, the modified torpedo is 14.7 meters long, 1 meter in diameter, 8 tons in drainage, 3 times as long as the conventional torpedo with 1.5 tons of explosives filled in warhead, and has a maximum speed of 30 knots and a voyage distance of 23,000 meters. ?
Huitian profile. There are four types of Huitian, i.e. Type 1, Type 2, Type 4 and Type 10. Among them, the largest type 2 plans to adopt a new engine based on German technology, with a speed of up to 40 knots and a larger size. But until the war was defeated, only one type went into mass production.
Before the attack, 3-6 manned torpedoes were fixed on the deck of the submarine. At first, the crew took the submarine, and the submarine floated to the surface before entering the torpedo, but it was easy to expose. So it was changed to sit directly in the torpedo before the attack. When the submarine arrived near the target, it released the torpedo. The crew raised the periscope to confirm the position of the target and drove the torpedo to hit the target.
The engine is on the side of Huitian, which is taken directly from the 93 torpedo.
In July 1944, the first manned torpedo was completed and the experiment ran smoothly. But as an emergency weapon, its shortcomings are obvious.
First of all, the torpedo shell can only withstand pressure at most 80 meters underwater. Of course, the deeper the submarine, the better, but there is no way to maintain only above this depth, if encounter anti-submarine attacks will be passive. And the U.S. military also likes to concentrate on the fire to knock off the submarine to a pot end, resulting in a total of 16 submarines on board 8 were sunk.
The Japanese submarine carries the Return to Heaven manned torpedo.
Secondly, problems such as the concentration of cockpit exhaust gas, the difficulty of communication between crew and submarine, the bad identification of enemy and foe at night, and the difficulty of maneuvering have not been solved.
But burning eyebrows cant control that much. In August 1944, the manned torpedo was adopted as a formal weapon. It was named Return to Heaven in the sense of Return to Heaven.
Because of the shortage of domestic resources and the bombardment of American forces every day. The production of Huitian is not going well, and it can produce up to three products a day.
Oxygen torpedo engine maintenance requirements are high, a launch needs to be prepared for up to three days. And often failures occur, the projects initiator, Heimubos, died in training accidents.
In this way, it takes six hands and six eyes to drive (drivers words) the return to heaven has been confirmed with pitiful results. Only three were sunk and four were injured, mostly transport or landing craft.
Among them, on November 20, 1944, Renkoguanv, another initiator of manned torpedo, drove the USS Mississinewa AO-59 into the sky, which was the first result of the battle.
Smoke billows and the sinking of the U.S. tanker Mississineva.
One of the five returning to heaven launched at the same time hit the front starboard side of the ship, which was carrying 16,930 litres of various fuels, and the explosion caused heavy fires and smoke to billow. This made the Japanese submarine captain mistakenly believe that he had achieved tremendous results and reported at least three aircraft carriers were injured after returning to sea.
Another noteworthy result was achieved on July 24, 1945, when the USS Underhill DE-682 was sunk.
The impact location is near the lower part of the starboard bridge. Several seconds later, the front ammunition depot exploded, the bridge was directly exploded, and the ship broke in half. The wreckage was eventually sunk by a friendly ship, resulting in 112 U.S. sailors killed and about 100 wounded.
U.S. Navy destroyer Underhill.
By the end of the war, more than 420 Huitian volunteers had been produced, and a total of 1375 volunteers had received relevant training. But only 87 of them actually drove the return to heaven attack (all of them died in battle). The average age of the dead was 21.1 years. Under the backward technical conditions at that time, this kind of weapon, which took man as its guidance component, could be said to be worthless except for wasting the lives of precious young people.
Source of this article: Netease Talking about Military Responsible Editor: Li Xi_NN2587