Black holes are the most beautiful objects in the universe, and their extreme gravitational fields provide a perfect laboratory for studying general relativity and quantum physics. On April 10, Zu Ying, a special researcher at the School of Physics and Astronomy of Shanghai Jiaotong University, who is engaged in Astrophysics and cosmology, said in an interview with Pengchao journalists.
Zu Ying said: This is the first high-resolution observation in human history to capture the shadow of a black hole, representing a peak on the road of rapid development of human science and technology. For our astronomers, although we have accurately measured the mass of the central black hole in the Milky Way through observations of star orbits, after all, seeing is believing. Moreover, this photo will answer more questions we didnt know before, such as how the accretion disk of a black hole is shaped, whether the rotation of a black hole is fast or slow, and whether general relativity is valid near the horizon of a black hole.
The super antenna array in New Mexico consists of 27 independent radio telescopes. Photo Source: NRAO/AUI
According to Zu Ying, black holes are dense nodes in space-time of the universe. The gravity in these nodes is so strong that even light can not escape. At present, there is solid evidence that there are two kinds of black holes, one is the star black hole formed by the collapse of stars after their death. The mass of this black hole is between 3 and 100 suns; the other is the supermassive black hole in the center of galaxies, whose mass is hundreds of thousands to billions of suns. The black hole in the center of the Milky Way Galaxy has 400 solar masses, while another target observed by the Event Horizon Telescope is the black hole in the center of M87 galaxy, which has 5 billion solar masses.
Zuying further explained: Black holes can convert the gravitational potential energy of these materials into energy by accumulating a large number of substances and releasing them. These energies are huge, such as a supermassive black hole that emits more light than all the stars in the galaxy.
Black holes grow by accreting surrounding gases, such as a gas cloud that astronomers discovered in 2012 at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy flying toward the black hole, Zuying explained. However, even if the growth of black holes is very large, for example, some supermassive black holes will have billions of solar masses, and their sphere of influence is very small, hardly affecting other stars in the galaxy. Moreover, because our sun rotates around the galaxy at a high speed, it will not fall directly into the center of the galaxy and be swallowed up by black holes, which is why the earth is not swallowed up by the sun.
Black holes themselves are dead (stars die, gases are swallowed). Some small black holes created at the beginning of the Big Bang evaporate like Hawkings radiation effect, but most black holes still exist. Zu Ying added, Some of these black holes are more active, such as many supermassive black holes can absorb a lot of gas, and then release huge heat and radiation, there will also be a lot of jet phenomena, and some black holes are quieter, the black hole in the center of our galaxy belongs to a quieter one.
Star Trek is known as a film that accurately describes black holes and conforms to Einsteins general relativity equation. So what happens if a person falls into a black hole like the hero in the movie? Does the person outside look at him and see if he stays at the boundary of vision and he himself enters a distorted space?
Zu Ying said, This person should have been torn to pieces by the tidal force of the black hole before he fell into it. If he falls in consciously and completely, he will, as you said, stay at the horizon forever, and the other half may be roaming in the curved space-time of the black hole.
Source of this article: Peng Mei News Responsible Editor: Li Wan_B11284