Overseas Network, April 10 (Beijing Time), at 21:00 p.m. tonight, space fans around the world are looking forward to the unveiling of the first black hole photograph of mankind. What exactly does a black hole look like? Whats the difference between black holes in physics and astronomerseyes and those seen by ordinary people? High-powered spoilers are coming.
Black spots surrounded by a circle of bright light
To understand this picture of a black hole, we first need to know some basic knowledge about the black hole. A black hole is a massive celestial body with a very strong gravitational pull, which makes light unable to escape its sphere of influence, which is called the radius of a black hole or event horizon. Although black holes are invisible to the naked eye, we can trace them back to the event horizon of photon disappearance.
The super gravity of a black hole can tear the surrounding gas to its side, creating a disk of gas rotating around the black hole, which is called an accretion disk. Black holes sometimes belch, and part of the accretion gas is ejected along the direction of rotation to form a jet. Both accretion disk and jet phenomena produce bright light and large amount of radiation due to gas friction, which is the circle of light we have seen in various black hole simulation pictures in the past.
Based on these basic knowledge, foreign media have described the possible appearance of black hole photographs, that is, the invisible boundary of black hole will be surrounded by light, which may also be reflected in the photos released tonight. Yahoo News speculated that the first black hole photo might show a black spot surrounded by a circle of bright light.
(Source: Event Vision Telescope project website)
Yanchuan, a data scientist at Japans Letian Institute of Technology, also simulated a possible image of an overweight black hole, showing an unbalanced accretion disk and event horizon (internal shadow). Looking carefully, one part of it will be brighter and the other part will be darker.
However, among the many voices in favour, there are also doubts. The famous science news network Science Alert is uncertain about whether the picture can be seen clearly. This may be a challenge, because the black hole at the center of our galaxy is shrouded in a thick cloud of dust and gas.
Liu Siming, a researcher at Zijinshan Observatory, also believes that since the black hole imaging data come from eight observation points, a question mark is needed on the degree of precision of the photos. In the future, with the maturity of science and technology, we may be able to take sharper pictures of black holes.
The analytical power of the event horizon telescope in this photograph is like standing on the east coast of the United States and seeing a coin on the west coast of the United States or a hole in a golf ball in Los Angeles in New York. Long Yingtai, a famous Taiwanese writer, makes such a vivid analogy.
Screenshots of NetizensWeibo
Steeds neck in the field of shell astronomy also gave you a precaution in advance: In real photos, the event horizon, or boundary, of a black hole is about two pixels in size.
This is a close-up picture of a real object. Its cool!
Rather than being a photograph, the more precise definition is that this shooting is a real-life depiction.
Astronomical telescopes from eight observation points focus the observed electromagnetic waves on feedback, and by analyzing these electromagnetic signals, scientists can obtain some physical quantities related to the distribution of high-temperature materials near black holes. Combining with the theoretical model of black holes which has been perfected for many years, the black hole imaging can be obtained by comparing the analogue data with the observed data.
Astronomers and physicists still express juvenile excitement, even though images are based on comparisons - not just ordinary people are happy to see visual images.
I am very happy to see this image soon! Daniel Holz, a professor at the University of Chicago, said. Although I know that it uses mathematical operations and that the relevant theories have been thoroughly tested, it is still a close-up picture of a real object. Thats cool.
Its exciting to have such close contact with black holes, said Priyawada Natalahan, an astrophysicist at Yale University. Timothy Brand, an astrophysicist who studies black holes at the University of California, Santa Barbara, said excitedly, Its great just to see it. We will know something about science, and we will know more and more over time. Its cool to just see these images.
In addition to being cool, this public black hole image can also be used to detect Einsteins general theory of relativity in 1915. Is Einsteins prediction of matter and energy applicable to the vicinity of black holes? Perhaps through this image, we will find the defects of general relativity?
But even if people question general relativity, this discovery does not necessarily mean that the theory is wrong, but that we have more physical knowledge to understand. This is what the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) website calls it.
In addition to testing Einsteins general theory of relativity, another reason why this photograph excites academia is that it will turn our view of the universe from imagination to reason and reality, and perhaps redefine the universe.
Source of this article: Author of Overseas Network: Zhang Neis Responsible Editor: Xiao Qi_NN6799