Suffocating and diving 70 meters, which gene of Southeast Asian Ba Yao people control respiratory power?

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 Suffocating and diving 70 meters, which gene of Southeast Asian Ba Yao people control respiratory power?


Photo note: a BA Yao man holds a wooden diving glasses. The result of simple training? The Southeast Asian Ba Yao people have an excellent diving ability, and they are regarded as highly skilled divers all over the world. In the summer of 2015, Melissa Lado went to Southeast Asia to see for himself the suffocating power of the Ba Yao people. She also remembered the scene of a dive with PaiBayubu: PaiBayubu had already dived so deep that PaiBayubu saw a giant clam at the place of 9 to 12 meters below him, and then he dived down again. He was at the bottom of the water pointing to the clam! The Ba Yao people are as comfortable and comfortable as the ordinary people in the water. They were on the bottom of the sea. They can fully control their breathing and body. They catch fish with a harpoon, and they often get a hit. The Ba Yao people are sometimes called nomadic people on the sea. They live on the sea for more than one thousand years. They live on a small boat house, and the ship is floating on the sea surface around Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines. Traditionally, they will also go ashore, but only to shore up supplies or avoid storms. They can dive to 70 meters or even deeper to get food. They dont have tight diving suits or flippers. They only need wooden eyewear and homemade spear guns. Sometimes, when they were very young, the Ba Yao people cracked their tympanic membrane, but it was also beneficial. It was easier to dive. The ability of the Ba Yao people is almost certainly shaped by experience and training. But La duo has found evidence that the Ba Yao people have genetically adapted to marine life. In the summer of 2015, he took three trips to Indonesia, during which he met some people in the JayaBakti village of Ba Yao in Indonesia. He told local people that he was a geneticist, he wanted to go diving with the villagers, and wanted to know the way of life of the villagers. During a trip, she took an ultrasonic device, and she scanned the bodies of 59 villagers with equipment. After the scan, it was discovered that the spleens of the Ba Yao people were very large, which was 50% larger than that of their adjacent Saluan group. The role of the spleen is like a repository of red blood cells carrying oxygen. When the mammals hold their breath, the spleen contracts, the red blood cells are expelled, and the oxygen content is increased by 10 percentage points. Therefore, the best free divers often have the largest spleen, which is similar to the seals in the depths of the sea. And the spleen can become bigger by training: ErikaSchagatay of the central Swedish University found that after climbing Mount Qomolangma, climbers were able to emptying their spleens much more when they were holding their breath after climbing Mount Qomolangma. Genetic interpretation But the big spleen of the Ba Yao people is not just the result of training. La and her team, led by the EskeWillerslev and RasmusNielsen of University of Copenhagen in Denmark, found that even the villagers who never dive in the Ba Yao village had a larger spleen. When we find this phenomenon, we think that this is probably related to heredity, said La duo. The team found a gene called PDE10A, a gene that can do a lot, not only in the thyroid gland, but also to control the release of hormones. The variant of PDE10A is common in the people of Pakistan and is usually associated with higher levels of thyroid hormones, which, in turn, can make the spleen bigger, strictly speaking, at least in rodents. This may explain why the Ba Yao people have greater spleen and extraordinary suffocation. This study is the first to show that human splenic responses may have a genetic basis, Schagatay said. Schagatay did not participate in the study. There is also a gene called FAM178B, which can affect the level of carbon dioxide in the blood, which is also an important factor in controlling breathing. The common FAM178B variants in the Ba Yao people may come from the Yu Dans people, who are ancient primitive people who once lived in Asia. Obviously, when modern people entered Asia, they had sex with Dannys people and inherited some DNA from Dannys people. The reason why the Tibetan people in modern China can survive in high altitude areas may be because one of the genes of Danny, Danny, has played a vital role in the adaptation. In the same way, it is all about dealing with the lack of oxygen. The superiority of the Ba Yao people in diving is also possible. But we have not yet confirmed this point, and we need to do more analysis. Lado said. Great medical significance These findings may have important medical significance. Some diseases, including stroke and heart disease, can make the body anoxic, so helping the Pakistani people to hold their breath under water may inspire scientists to better protect patients on the land. For the same reason, Nielsen and his colleagues are also studying the genes of people living in Tibet and Ethiopia, China, at high altitudes, and they will also study other people living in extreme environments. It is also important for geneticists to give back to the groups they study. She was very intent on this. She had planned to go to JayaBakti again, and she would introduce the findings to Bayubu and other Ba Yao people. If we collect samples, we will disappear without a trace. Thats not good. I hope that the Ba Yao people can also benefit from it. I want to convey more positive messages to this group. Lado said. La duo said that the Ba Yao people, like many nomadic peoples in the world, are also faced with slander and slander by surrounding groups. Officials at a university in Indonesia told him that they were not trustworthy. Others told him to be careful of the Yao Yaos aphrodisiac. There are too many mysticism in the Ba Yao people. They live on the edge of modern society, so they are suspected by outsiders, but they are the most enthusiastic people I have ever seen. KepalaDesaHasan, the leader of the village, took me to his house. There are also a pair of Yao Yao parents to accept me as a dry daughter. Lado said that the traditional way of life of the Ba Yao people is also disappearing. Some of the governments projects have forced many people like Pakistan and Yao to go to land, and it is harder for Ba Yao people to float on the sea. They used to use light wood to make boats, but these trees are now on the verge of extinction. This is obviously not what the Ba Yao people do. Now they can only use heavier wood to make boats, so that they have to install motors and gasoline, which means they have to spend money, which is expensive. They are slowly connected to the land, but some of the Ba Yao people still build their houses on stilts to maintain contact with the ocean. Lado said. Source: NetEase science editor: Guo Hao _NT5629 La duo said that the Ba Yao people, like many nomadic peoples in the world, are also faced with slander and slander by surrounding groups. Officials at a university in Indonesia told him that they were not trustworthy. Others told him to be careful of the Yao Yaos aphrodisiac. There are too many mysticism in the Ba Yao people. They live on the edge of modern society, so they are suspected by outsiders, but they are the most enthusiastic people I have ever seen. KepalaDesaHasan, the leader of the village, took me to his house. There are also a pair of Yao Yao parents to accept me as a dry daughter. Lado said The traditional way of life of the Pakistani Yao people is also disappearing. Some of the governments projects have forced many people like Pakistan and Yao to go to land, and it is harder for Ba Yao people to float on the sea. They used to use light wood to make boats, but these trees are now on the verge of extinction. This is obviously not what the Ba Yao people do. Now they can only use heavier wood to make boats, so that they have to install motors and gasoline, which means they have to spend money, which is expensive. They are slowly connected to the land, but some of the Ba Yao people still build their houses on stilts to maintain contact with the ocean. Lado said.