According to Nautilus, a foreign science website, Galileos publication of the star messenger has changed peoples understanding of the separation of heaven and earth and poses a sharp challenge to the absolute truth that people believed in the time. The expansion of the material world has left people at a loss. The material nature of stars and the law of conservation of energy jointly indicate that stars are doomed to extinction. People thought that the stars in the sky were immortal and eternal representatives. They did not expect to die and die. In 1610, Italy astronomer and mathematician Galileo Galilei (GalileoGalilei) published the starry envoy. 550 copies of the first edition are printed, and only 150 are stored at the moment. A few years ago, the value of the first edition of the starry envoy was estimated at between $600 thousand and $800 thousand per copy. The paperback version of 1989 was priced at about $12. Although the history of science did not grant the starry envoy as the equivalent of Newtons mathematical principles of natural philosophy or the honor of Darwins origin of species, it is one of the most important scientific works in history. In this short book, Galileo describes what he sees when he uses a telescope to observe the sky, and provides strong evidence that the celestial bodies are made up of ordinary matter. Galileo was born in Pisa in Italy and grew up in Florence. He taught mathematics at University of Padua since 1592. He can not afford all kinds of financial burdens on his salary alone. Besides paying dowry for his sisters, he has to raise three children of his mistress. So he receives tenants at home, provides accommodation, and sells scientific instruments. In the late 1580s, he conducted the famous free fall experiment. When he was 45 years old in 1609, he heard that Holland invented a new type of magnifying device. Although he had never seen such a device, he quickly designed and built a telescope, which was several times stronger than the one in Holland. Moreover, he seems to be the first to observe the night sky with binoculars. Galileo grind and improve the lens himself. His first telescope can magnify objects more than ten times. Eventually he built a telescope capable of magnifying 1000 times, making the object look 30 times more than the actual one. Some of his telescopes are preserved in the Galileo Museum in Florence. His first telescope was 90 centimeters long and 3.8 centimeters wide, made of wood and leather, with a convex lens at one end and concave eyepiece at the other end. Through the telescope, the field of vision is small, as if a dark circle of coin size is seen at the end of a long tube of one arm, which can only identify blurred images. If you take a copy of the telescope to a building about 90 meters away, you can see details of the brick you cant see by the naked eye. It is hard to imagine Galileos excitement and surprise when he first looked up at the stars and gazed at the heavenly bodies with his invention. For centuries, in peoples descriptions, these objects are rotating spheres such as the moon, the sun and the planets, which operate on a structure similar to the crystal sphere, and the outermost body is the tenth layer of heaven that is rotated by the finger of God. This is the geocentric theory put forward by ancient Greek astronomer Ptolemy, which is a theory centered on the earth. All this is made up of the ether. In Aristotles view, ether is the fifth element besides fire, water, soil and gas. It is a perfect element without flaws in essence and form. John Milton (JohnMilton) described it as the etherealquintessenceofHeaven of heaven in the epic paradise lost. All this is under the control of the divine God. Galileo, through his rough telescopes, is actually a crater and sunspot on the moon. A few centuries ago, SaintThomas Aqquinas (SaintThomasAquinas) successfully combined Aristotles cosmology with Christian doctrines, including the nature of the celestial body formed by the ether, the earths center in the universe and the idea of keeping still. However, Aristotle believes that the life span of the universe is infinite, while Christianity believes that the universe is limited. Aqquinas disagrees with the former on this issue. Galileos discovery of the flaws in the celestial bodies severely challenged the church. And Galileos telescope itself has also been questioned. It is one of the first tools to expand the human senses, showing the world which is invisible to the naked eye and ears. This tool has never been seen before. Many people are skeptical about its legitimacy and the credibility of its observations. In some peoples eyes, this tool is magical, but it does not belong to their world, just like the mobile phone through 1800. Although Galileo was a scientist, he did not fully understand how telescopes worked. Recall the magic and witchcraft that were widely circulated in Europe in 16th Century and 17th Century. In the past two centuries, 40 thousand people suspected of being witches (most of them women) were burned on the stake, hanging on the gallows or beheaded. In 1597, King James VI of Scotland (after the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603, he was the king of England, the history of James Thi) complained that there is a great number of sorcerers in this country at this time, frightening. At that time, it was believed that witches could harm him by destroying a persons wisp of hair or nails. Does the Italy mathematicians Telescope have such a touch of witchcraft? Others believe that Galileos discovery through the telescope is questioned, not because they have the suspicion of witchcraft or the challenge of theological doctrines, but because they subvert the individual world outlook and philosophy. Cesare Cremonini (CesareCremonini), a professor of Aristotle philosophy at University of Padua, blasted Galileos statement about the moon craters and sunspots, and refused to use Galileos telescopes to observe the sky. Galileo had also taught the University. He said, I do not want to agree with what I do not understand, nor do I agree with what I have not seen before. Enough! I dont want to hear anything about it again. Aristotle, a professor of philosophy at the same time as Galileo, also rejected the use of binoculars by Giulio Liby (GiulioLibri). Galileo responded to these skeptics in his letter to scientist Johannes Kepler (JohannesKepler): Dear Kepler, let us laugh at the extraordinary stupidity of these mortal beings. They are so stubborn. I have volunteered and offered many times the opportunity to observe the planets or the moon with binoculars, but they did not want to see them. What else can you say to these important philosophers in this field? Really, just like the donkeys ears were blocked up, these philosophers closed their eyes in the face of the truth. When he observed the shadow line on the moon, it was found to be a jagged irregular curve, contrary to what theology believed. Theology holds that the moon is a perfect sphere, so the line of light and shade should be a smooth curve. Galileo wrote: anyone will understand that the surface of the moon cant be smooth, but rough and rough. Like the surface of the earth, the peaks, the abyss and the circling terrain are everywhere. He also describes four satellites around Jupiter, which make the concept of other planets similar to the earth more believable. In other words, the earth is no longer special. All these support the heliocentric theory that Copernicus put forward 67 years ago - the sun, not the earth, is the center of the planetary system. Such a thin book contains quite a few subversive ideas, which poses a great challenge to Aristotle or the church. Galileo became famous in Europe a few months after the publication of star Messenger, partly because of its military, commercial and scientific value. In a letter to a friend, Galileo describes that you can watch the sails and ships in the distance, and they sail for more than two hours before they disappear into my telescope. News about this invention has been continuously disseminated through letters and conversations. Galileos sunspot has posed a greater challenge to the perfection and sanctity of heaven. We now know that sunspots are caused by high density magnetic activity in the outer layer of the sun. In 1611, ChristophScheiner, an important mathematician from Swabia in southwestern Germany, and the Jesus adherent, Christof, bought a telescope and confirmed the sight of Galileos sunspots moving on the surface of the sun. However, Shanal was convinced of Aristotles geocentric theory that the sun was flawless and based on it, and put forward all kinds of evidence that complies with the geocentric theory, trying to explain that the sunspot phenomenon was caused by other planets or satellites around the earth, not the sun itself. Galileo is a mathematician, as printed in the title page of his book. Mathematics is usually regarded as an abstract logical discipline. Mathematics helps scholars calculate and predict the real world, but the world described by mathematics is different from the real world. In particular, the anti theological models of celestial systems are regarded only as computational methods, which describe phenomena contrary to reality. Therefore, from the point of view of the calculation method, Aristotle and Ptolemys geocentric theory and Copernicuss daily heart theory are in the same position, because these two theories can all accurately explain the position of the planet. But geocentric theory conforms to the theological and philosophical beliefs at that time and is therefore regarded as a reflection of reality. When Galileos observations began to be recognized, church believers remained skeptical. In March 19, 1611, the head of the CollegioRomano (CollegioRomano) and bishop Robert Belamin (RobertBellarmine) wrote to his followers of Jesus, who was a mathematician. I know youve heard of the astronomical image of a well-known mathematician. I also heard a different point of view. You are masters of mathematical science. Can you tell me briefly whether these findings are based on conclusive evidence? Is it true or false? These mathematicians debated Galileos observation details and agreed that the findings were true. However, Galileos discovery and his support for Copernicuss heliocentric theory are regarded as unpardonable attacks on theological beliefs. He was a devout Catholic in Rome and had seriously considered working in clerical work. But as a result of the above crime, he was finally tried by a religious court, and was forced to publicly announce most of his discoveries and spend his late years in house arrest. Nowadays, the mistake of geocentric theory has long been an indisputable fact. Since Galileo, astronomers have a deep understanding of the universe, the materiality of the universe impacted the absolute essence of the star and reduced the lofty status of the celestial bodies in theology. This gap began with the observation of craters and ravines on the moon. After 1610, some thinkers and writers began to see the moon and planets as places with soil, air and water, which are suitable for human beings. In 1630, Johannes Kepler (JohannesKepler) completed a best-selling fantasy known as Somnium, the story of a boy and his mother who went through space to the Levania satellite. Everything in Lewan is more extreme than the earth. The mountains are much higher than the earth, and the valleys are much deeper. The tropical part of the satellite is inhabited by some creatures, which are extremely large and can only live for a day. They can swim, fly or crawl, but life is too short to build a town or government, but they can find food for a short life. Because Kepler was an outstanding scientist, educated people in seventeenth Century, eighteenth Century and nineteenth Century enjoyed reading this novel. Other writers have also created many similar fantasy novels. In the elephant moon of SamuelButler (SamuelButler), a group of smug scientists used telescopes to observe the moon and saw an ongoing battle, during which an elephant jumped from a row of soldiers to another in a few seconds (probably because the moon was much smaller than the earth. ). In 1698, Christian Huygens (ChristiaanHuygens), a mathematician and scientist in Holland, wrote a book called the CelestialWorldsDiscovered, which can be read about the people, plants and production of different planets. These books and poems are written as the public. To a certain extent, they reflect peoples views on the material nature of planets in the seventeenth Century. But from the stars nature, the impact of Galileos findings may be the most profound. Giordano Bruno, a Italy philosopher and writer, put forward the idea that stars may be stars in the 1584 published in the infinite universe and world (InfiniteUniverseandWorlds). Bruno wrote: there may be countless other worlds similar to the earths conditions, and there may be countless suns or similar hot stars. Because of these notions and his denial of other Catholic beliefs, he was burned to death on the stake in 1600. By the early seventeenth Century, all thinkers accepted the idea that a star might be the sun. Therefore, when Galileo pointed out that the sun was flawed, his discoveries had a significant effect on peoples understanding of stars. In the eyes of people, stars are no longer perfect, they are no longer composed of something permanent and indestructible, unlike anything on earth. The sun and the moon are material like the earth. In nineteenth Century, astronomers began to analyze the chemical composition of stars through prisms. The prism can divide the stars into different wavelengths. Different colors may be related to different chemical elements. As a result, astronomers have discovered that stars contain many common elements on earth, such as hydrogen, helium, oxygen and silicon. This proves the physical properties of stars, which are made up of atoms. The star is like a huge match. It stores limited energy and stores nuclear energy instead of chemical energy. When atoms fuse together to form heavier atoms, nuclear energy is released. But the ability of a star to supply nuclear power is limited, like the supply of chemical energy after burning matches. When stars burn nuclear fuel, energy is released into space, most of which is released in the form of light. For example, it is like placing a star in a huge box, the total energy in the box remains unchanged, but the energy is gradually transferred from the star to the light in the box, and the heat and chemical energy of all the substances that absorb light gradually increase. Of course, stars can not be placed in huge boxes, but they follow the conservation law. According to scientists like Giordano Bruno (GiordanoBruno) and Galileo, stars are matter and have limited energy. Stars radiate energy into space and gradually deplete their limited nuclear energy. Eventually, these precious stars will burn out and darken. In about 5 billion years, we will be the same as the sun. In about 1 trillion years, all stars in the universe will become cold and vanish. By that time, the night sky will be completely dark. The sun shines no longer. The countless stars in the sky, once seen as the last resting place after the death of Pharaoh, have been considered as a symbol of eternity and immortality, and will eventually become the cold ashes floating in space. Source: NetEase science editor: Guo Hao _NT5629 Of course, stars can not be placed in huge boxes, but they follow the conservation law. According to scientists like Giordano Bruno (GiordanoBruno) and Galileo, stars are matter and have limited energy. Stars radiate energy into space and gradually deplete their limited nuclear energy. Eventually, these precious stars will burn out and darken. In about 5 billion years, we will be the same as the sun. In about 1 trillion years, all stars in the universe will become cold and vanish. By that time, the night sky will be completely dark. The sun shines no longer. The countless stars in the sky, once seen as the last resting place after the death of Pharaoh, have been considered as a symbol of eternity and immortality, and will eventually become the cold ashes floating in space.