The project on the Nile is likely to be completed this year. It is a sign of ambition in Ethiopia. What is the revival of the dam? Ethiopia Fuxing dam is now being built on the Nile, not far from the border with Sultan. In the place the American found in 50s, the dam project was large, about 1800 meters long, 175 meters high, and 74 billion cubic meters of water storage capacity, which made a lake over an area of over 1500 square kilometers. This will become the largest hydropower dam in Africa and will provide 6400 megawatts of electricity to support the countrys economic growth and rapid industrialization. It is estimated that Ethiopias electricity demand is growing by 30% annually. The projected population growth in the country with one hundred million inhabitants indicates that the countrys demand for electricity will not decrease. However, for Ethiopia, or at least for its rulers, the plan is much larger than ordinary structural investment. The ruling party, which strongly advocates nationalism and with absolute power, and the Ethiopia peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front make the plan a symbol, and therefore have chosen the present name. When the dam was announced in March 2011, Meles Zenawi, then prime minister, regarded the dam as a near existing action. For example, he claims that the huge cost of construction ($2 billion 800 million) may be funded by the state because of some independent issues. As a result, all Ethiopia people, beginning with civil servants, are invited to contribute to this great project and accept less wages, sometimes a lot less. Chinese banks provide $1 billion 600 million in loans to pay for equipment. A total of more than 4 billion 500 million dollars was delivered to a Italian company. In fact, the lack of research on the environmental impact of Ethiopia is opaque on this issue, leading to a variety of problems surrounding the firmness of the dam to be built, and criticism by many non-governmental organizations has prompted the major international financial institutions and many countries to not participate in or reject loan requests. In addition to the reasonable concern for nature, the regional conflict created by the dam has prompted the lenders to keep their distance from the project. Today, 70% of the Fuxing dam has been built, which is likely to be irrigated from 2018. In terms of sovereignty, it made Egypt unhappy. Why does Egypt oppose it? It is a polite euphemism to say that this country is attached to the Nile. Ciro Dodd, an ancient Greek writer, said, Egypt is the gift of the Nile. An ordinary figure is enough to make people understand that 97% of Egypts water demand depends on the protection of the river. In such a case, a slight change in the river may result in very serious consequences. In Cairos view, the Fuxing dam may cause changes that threaten its economic development and the already difficult food supply. In February, Egypts minister of irrigation and irrigation reiterated this view angrily at a meeting in Sultan. He said, if the water flow in Egypt dropped by 2%, we could lose about 100 thousand hectares of arable land. And half a hectare of land can feed a family. And if we think there are 5 people in a family, that means millions of people may be faced with the problem of no source of livelihood. Egyptian researchers believe such a shock could lead to political instability. If Ethiopia turns the dam into an independent issue, Egypt will see the issue of national security and even national pride. Egypt has always regarded the Nile as a private property, although 7 other countries have claimed that part of the worlds first long river, which is 6700 kilometers long, has sovereignty. Surprisingly, Cairo did not respond to the announcement of the establishment of the dam by Ethiopia. At that time, the Egyptian government in turmoil was worried about the political situation. There was no opposition or support. It now depends on the 1959 agreement, which allows Egypt to enjoy 55 billion 500 million cubic meters of Nile water annually and has the authority to monitor upstream construction. After many years, what Cairo is facing now is a fait accompli. There is no other solution except for difficult negotiations or major military operations. Does the risk of conflict really exist? Experts believe that this assumption is unlikely today. Sadat did say, in 1978, President Mengistu, who threatened to build a dam in Lake Tana in 1978, and said, only water can bring Egypt into war. Today, nothing is afraid of military conflict. However, the situation is still very tense. In June 2013, Egyptian President Mulsi convened a conference on the dam. The meeting, believed to be a secret, was actually broadcast live on television, and people heard some politicians call the project a conspiracy of the United States and Zionism and to send out special forces or support local rebels. Scandal raged, prompting Cairo to apologise repeatedly. A few days later, Abdul Fattah Sethi came to power to avoid the worst. On this issue, the new president needs to be paced first. In 2015, a three party agreement was signed with Sultan and Ethiopia. But the text of the agreement did not lead to any concrete results, because the Egyptian government finally regarded it as a mistake. As a result, the dialogue continued, but no significant progress was made. The latest negotiation in April 2018 is only a proof of failure. Negotiations should start again, but here the concrete walls are always rising. In fact, Egypt seems to be in the final struggle to fight for the longest reservoir water storage period. Ethiopia has always been ambivalent about its wishes, and now it is certainly expected that the water level of the lake will rise rapidly, which will take 4 years or less. Egypt has put forward 8 years, even 10 years. Cairo says that too fast is likely to pose a danger to the upstream countries and therefore seek allies. What is the position of the other countries in the region? Is the impact on the environment controlled? This is the real weakness of the rejuvenation of the dam. The issue of environmental impact on dam projects by the governments less open Ethiopian has always been silent. Ethiopia said that many studies have been carried out, but these studies remain largely confidential. In addition, there are some technical problems concerning the safety and scale of the project. Some experts believe that the rejuvenation of the dam is too large. The most uncomfortable protests, however, are that dams may have an impact on the fragile hydrological system in areas where water is scarce. In 2012, the NGO international river organization was concerned about the impact of dams on the climate in a controversial report. On the contrary, the advocates of the dam emphasize that it will minimize the loss, especially the loss of the Aswan High Dam reservoir, which accounts for 10% of the annual evaporation. They emphasized the fault of Egypt indirectly. In this country, 85% of water resources are used for agriculture, resulting in great waste. A diplomat questioned, perhaps this kind of unrestrained and unrestrained water consumption is the biggest problem. If we do not achieve anything in this regard, the region will not be able to avoid very serious tensions. (compiling / Lu Yangyang) Data map: Ethiopia Fuxing dam. The source of this article: Reference News Editor: ye Zhi FA _NBJS6073 Data map: Ethiopia Fuxing dam.