40 years ago, a change was a curtain. Open is the wind, and the reform is the wave. This is the wind of the end of the blue and duckweed in the years of scarcity. It became a wave between the turbulent times, and eventually became the trend of the wind, the waves and the waves. After 40 years of scour, we have shaped the cross section of our times, whether it is a economic miracle that has lasted for decades, or the innermost heart of the people; it is the change of 360. For the Internet plus, or into the homes of ordinary people express delivery, the new 4 big inventions; whether it is related to the aim of quality growth, is related to peoples livelihood and consumption upgrade...... Both marks the new day of Chinese society after 40 years of reform and opening up. See a little know, see the end can know the end. Although time has given us the answer, we still need to truncate a few rings of ring in the thick trunk of the tree of history, look for the grain of the micro, and then look into the past and predict the drought and drought of the future. We use the words to salvage the future of the past and to describe the people, things and things that have been branded in the years with pictures, and all this is to draw a historical basis for the reform and opening to the end. In contrast with the historical foundation, we should continue to reform the map, and we should not be puzzled about forty. Experience of reform: Xiang Wenzhong, former Secretary of the Party committee of Guangxi Yizhou County San Cha commune During my five years in office, I was one of the fifteen brigades in the management area. The emergence and implementation of Chinas first villager committee is under my tenure. At that time, the production of households increased the enthusiasm of the people, there was a family of seven people, three mu of corn planted in the morning, before the 37 labor force is not finished. But no matter what the big team is, the environment is in chaos. The town and village of three branches have been gambling, stealing and superstition. Yellow cattle cross the river and everything looks like money is like an infectious disease. More than a dozen people run the case, a thousand people make a bet, the husband sells his wife, the commune cadres sell the chemical fertilizer and so on. It should be a lot of chaos and a lot of absurdity. In the winter of 1979, there was a twenty year old young man in San Chu street. For fifty yuan, it was a wager to walk across the city from the east of the three forks to the West. On the street of Pingnan, there was a surnamed Wei, who gambled every day to lose his house, mosquito net and quilt, and his wife was so angry that he was so angry and far away. A robbery took place under my nose. At noon in the spring of 1980, thousands of people went to the state owned hole reservoir in the village of the village. We rushed to the news and shouted loudly, but it had no effect. Some people still speak in public: how do you dare to take us? although later things have been solved, many people reparate the fish money at a discount, but they can not make an example of the effect, the chaos is still. In December 14, 1980, Han Lixian, deputy secretary of the Party committee, came back from the village investigation and said that the fruit and fruit made a joint defence of the whole village. This is the archetype of the first villagers committee. For the commune, the villager committee has broken through the management system of the commune for many years. To be honest, we are the secretaries, and in the heart, we feel misgivings and fears. But after hearing our report, the leader said that as long as we are good to everyone, we can do it. Later, we heard that they elected their own village cadres through democratic voting, and made a village rules and regulations. They managed themselves, the public security situation has become better, and everyones heart is all together. On the 28 January of 1981, a custom thief village completed a case in the village and moved to another village. He thought of relatives, but relatives wanted to participate in the village rules and regulations. He ran to another house and was driven away and became a street mouse. Later, the leader of the joint defense ordered the whole village to catch up and catch up. The next day, the stolen goods were received by the police station. After the establishment of the villages public security joint defense by the village group and the commending of the commune Party committee, less than a month later, all the 12 villages in the whole brigade established a joint defense organization. By July 1981, 108 of the 144 natural villages of the whole commune had set up village committees. The hometown of Liu Sanjie, Yizhou District, Hechi, Guangxi. There is a junction of three counties, located in an ordinary Zhuang village, hezhai village, Pingnan township. Through a winding Village Road, you can see a three or four meter high white door building and carved beams and columns, with ten big red characters on it, the first Chinese villager committee, which is particularly striking. This is the birthplace of the title of the village committee of China. In 1980, under the big camphor trees in the village, the farmers of the two natural villages of Tutun and Guo Tun in Tutun and Guo Tun, voted their sacred vote in a secret way, and elected the villagers committee, a new management organization belonging to their own. They also worked out village rules and regulations, and the villagers themselves managed to manage themselves. This initiative, together with joint production contracting and township enterprises, is known as the three historic creation of Chinese farmers. 38 years later, autonomy and democracy are still the golden signboard of the village. Now, in addition to the village committee, the village also has a village supervision committee, and the 12 natural villages subordinate to the village of He village have their own villagers group and the party members Council. Villagers rights are protected by their understanding walls and the duty records of village committees. In April 24th, the first village committee of the village was built in the village of the village. Peng Ziyang, a journalist from the new Beijing News The creation under the tree of Cinnamomum camphora In April 25th, LAN Feng came to the office early, packed up the conference room, prepared his books and invoices for inspection. Today, we have come to the quarterly inspection day of village affairs supervision committee. LAN Feng is the director of the village committee of the village of he Zhai village. In September 1, 2017, after two rounds of voting, he won the twelfth term election of He village, and was elected the director of the village village by more than half of the votes. For half a year, LAN Feng did not dare to slack off at all times. If he cant do it well, we must remove him from his post and replace it. One of the villagers joked. In the same year, the villagers in the village were voting to vote for the villagers committee. Peng Ziyang, a journalist of the new Beijing newspaper, remade in the village of he Zhai village As early as 38 years ago, the villagers of the village had elected the first village cadres by secret ballot through democratic elections. This tradition has been extended to the present. Before 1979, the minimum score was only 8 points, the highest not more than 2 cents, and the wages of one day were not enough to buy a bowl of rice noodles. Wei Huanneng, as the first production leader of the fruit village of he Zhai village, has only 30 yuan a year. After that, the enthusiasm of the villagers had been mobilized, but the production team was empty, and the production skipper no longer managed the affairs of the village. In that time, the public security was disorderly. Our village must establish new management organizations and leading bodies. Wei hung can convene 5 other production team cadres, put forward this idea, everyone heard, agreed. But how did the new leadership come into being? The former production captain was appointed by the superior, and he could not declare himself as a leader or a leader. After discussion, we decided that the villagers themselves should choose. In February 5, 1980, they held a village Congress under the big camphor tree beside the village to elect the leading group of the village. Leaders in the village should be chosen according to the opinions of the majority of the people, without nomination of candidates in advance, and secret ballot should be held directly. Whoever votes will be elected. The host of the meeting was Meng Guangjie, the head of the brigade. In the village of he Zhai, the first village committee election was completed under the big camphor tree. Peng Ziyang, a journalist from the new Beijing News At that time, the village security was very chaotic. When the village cadres were numerous and unpaid, they would also affect their own production. Wei Huanneng said. But the host immediately said, which one must be chosen, and no one can refuse. They sent each person a note, only 6 names, and then put it in the rice barrel. After vote counting, the host announced the result on the spot. Wei Huan won the full vote and was elected director. Two deputy directors, an accountant and a cashier were also selected. New cadres have been selected, and there is no official organization name. Some people say that there is a management committee in the commune, and there is a neighborhood committee in the city. We call it village committee. In this way, the village committee became the official organization name of the fruit village. At the same time, a village autonomy Committee was set up in the village of Guzhai, one kilometer away from the same village. Representatives of more than 140 villagers in the village of Gu Di solemnly wrote down a string of names on the cigarette tissue paper. Under the witness of the whole village, one black Zheng is full of sunning of five thousand jin millet, and the first village director of montgotun was elected by 138 votes. At the first village committee of the village in the village of Ho TSE village, only five of the two were alive. The left one is the director of the first village committee, Mr Meng Guang Xin. Peng Ziyang, a journalist from the new Beijing News The first major event after the establishment of the village committee is to formulate village regulations and folk conventions and seal convention. The village rules and regulations restrict the uncivilized behaviors such as gambling and singing wild songs. Every household signs and seals the Convention. The original of the Convention is still in the archives management. It is the witness of the birth of the first village committee in the village. Subsequently, the village committees pioneered by he Zhai village were rapidly promoted throughout the country, followed by Sichuan, Henan and Shandong. When the constitution was amended at the end of 1982, the National Peoples Congress, for the first time, wrote the organization form of the villagers committee and the urban residents committee, and clearly stated that the residents committees or villagers committees set up in urban and rural areas are grass-roots groups of self-governing organizations. By 1985, villagers committees were generally established throughout the country. Nowadays, every village in the village has a window bar which is specially open to the village. It is called the understanding wall by the villagers. On the understanding wall, finance, government affairs and party affairs are clear and clear, and villagers opinion solicitation and feedback are clear at the same time. The village committee also has a record book on duty, which says that every day the people on duty take care of what is going on at home, and villagers can look at it casually. In the same year, he made a photocopy of the Convention of villagers convention. Peng Ziyang, a journalist of the new Beijing newspaper, remade in the village of he Zhai village Small people to solve big problems The village committee was written into the Constitution in 1982, and the village people elected the peoples Congress - the villagers assembly. The members of the Council of the Council are elected by the villagers representatives for the prestigious people, and the major events in the village must be studied through the conference. After the villagers meeting is passed, the village committee will be submitted to the Committee. The Council opens once a quarter, and it has never been interrupted for more than 20 years. Over the years, many problems have been solved for villagers. In 2003, because of poor management in the collective forest farm of the village village, the only cut off phenomenon appeared. The village committee proposed to sell the forest farm to the individual, and the income was used to repair the road. After the discussion of the conference, the majority expressed their opposition. Finally, the village committee carried out the decision of the conference and retained the forest farm. Nowadays, the villagers conference has evolved into a Party members mass Council, which has infiltrated every village in the village. Like the Villager Council, the Council is responsible for discussing the size of the village, small to help the villagers move things and collect food, to integrate the land and to build public facilities, and the Council is involved in it. The constitution of villagers autonomy in hehezhai village, Pingnan. New Beijing News reporter Peng Ziyang remake Meng Yanru, 36 years old, is the only female villager leader in the village. He is also a member of the Party committee of new Tun Village. The Council consists of villager leaders, Party members and villagers representatives. There are 9 members, all of whom are elected by villagers. Recently, Tsuen Tun Tun is discussing the redevelopment of small channels in the field. At the beginning of this year, the villagers came to reflect that the current mud channels are always leaking, and the rice seedlings can be irrigated with water and no crops. If the new channels are built with cement, it will be more convenient. Meng Yanru immediately convened the members of the board of directors to discuss the matter. They thought it was feasible and had to discuss the details of the construction. In front of the village, the village after the village, the village tail and the village canal size are different, Meng Yanru with the members of the measurements, statistics, to the public, and then to write the application to report. In those days, when the villagers were voting for the villagers committee, the vote was the cigarette paper at that time. Peng Ziyang, a journalist of the new Beijing newspaper, remade in the village of he Zhai village You are coming, someone is stealing minerals! the villagers immediately reported to the Council. Meng Yanru arrived at the scene with five or six people. Mining destruction of public welfare forests and trees, the final Council decided to make the decision, let the other party compensation, and set up a warning sign on the mountain: no one in the new village in the jurisdiction of the illegal mining of ore, once found, violators will be punished more than 10000 yuan, and reported to the public security organs. In April 7th, Meng Yan Ju went up the mountain for the second time, and there were more than 60 villagers representing them. They would go to the scene and discuss the amount of compensation. How to get twenty thousand or thirty thousand, fifty thousand above, one hundred thousand below and let them pay seventy thousand or eighty thousand? The villagers, you speak to me. After more than one hour of discussion, more than half of the people decided not to pay the money and report it to the higher authorities and give it to the government. This way of discussion first and then decision runs through the whole village. In the village of Ho Zhai, nothing is decided by one person. When there are votes and opinions, some villagers even try to come back and say a few words even if they are not working far away. Villagers autonomy is deeply rooted in the minds of the villagers. LAN Feng has a deep understanding. A scene when village officials voted for village officials in 1980. Peng Ziyang, a journalist of the new Beijing newspaper, remade in the village of he Zhai village The small commission for the discipline of the village of he Zhai village At three p.m. on April 25th, members of the village affairs committee were wearing glasses and crackling against the calculator in the village hall of the village. Their task is to verify the number and details of each invoice, and whether the usage is reasonable, and then the special person is responsible for recording the checked accounts. In the village of Ho Zhai, the village affairs supervision committee is a special team. Only five members are elected by the masses, every three years. They have no preparation and no income, but they shoulder the important task of supervising the work of village committees and spending on village affairs. There are two members of the village committee of village village, the first village director Wei Huanneng, the first village director, the first village committee as the first villagers accountant Wei Peng dance. Peng Ziyang, a journalist from the new Beijing News When the expenditure of 300 yuan is below, the Committee of the village committee can decide on its own. More than 300 yuan of money should be convened by the supervision committee to discuss it. The reason is reasonable and the expenses are reasonable; the village group will be called to discuss the large amount of money. Wei Wenfan said. He is the chairman of the current supervisory committee and the first and second members of the Committee. The village affairs supervision committee was established before and after 2010. The predecessor was the two groups, that is, the 12 village affairs board of supervisors, the 7 collective economic audit group and the villagers democratic financial management group set up in 1980, in 1998, responsible for the financial audit and the collective economic audit of the village affairs every year. Later, the two groups of one time was cancelled and the task was handed over to the village affairs supervision committee. At a village meeting in 2010, it was suggested that the financial team was reviewed only once a year, and it was not useful at ordinary times. We should have an organization that could manage the village committee to prevent the village cadres from making mistakes. Wei Wenfan recalls. Later, the village cadres feedback their ideas to their superiors. Soon, a sign of village village supervision committee appeared at the door of the village committee. In April 25th, the children were playing in front of the former neighborhood committee of the fruit village in he Zhai village. Peng Ziyang, a journalist from the new Beijing News On the conference table, several pink invoices were singled out. One of them says June 22nd, 71 souvenirs, a total of more than 2100 yuan. Another label bought several aluminum buckets. How can there be no purchase invoices issued by stores? Only the invoices issued by the villagers committee will definitely not work. Wei Wenfans head rocked like a rattle. It is to audit the expenses of the villagers committees. How can they calculate their own invoices? He pinched the invoice to the head of the village to find the village director, LAN Feng to understand the situation, and to find the village committee accounting to prove that at last, he finally saw the purchase vouchers provided by the store. And so on, all check clearly, the supervision committee should sign below, seal the official seal, then seal up the invoice and account, there is a file cabinet. The villagers can look at the group at any time. The village affairs supervision committee is not the original of the village village. The first village supervision committee was elected in June 2004 in Wuyi County, Zhejiang Province, but it was once questioned because of the laws and regulations. Over the next few years, all over the country explored village affairs supervision. In April 24th, a corner of the village of Kha village, fruit village. Peng Ziyang, a journalist from the new Beijing News In October 28, 2010, the organization law of the villagers committee was revised and issued, and the thirty-second article clearly stipulates that the village should establish the village affairs supervision committee or other form of village affairs supervision institution. In December 2017, the office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the general office of the State Council issued the guidance on the establishment and improvement of the supervision committee of the village affairs, and issued a notice requiring the departments and departments of all regions to implement it in a serious and serious way. Today, the village affairs committee is no longer a rare thing in the country. Besides checking the finances, supervising the work of village cadres is also the main task of the village affairs supervision committee. A couple of years ago, a couple in the village divorced, the village branch did not carry out a detailed investigation and gave the woman a proof that the man went out for a part-time job for many years. This incident was known to Wei Wenfan. He went to the village to ask about it. The villagers said that the man would return on holidays. He returned to the village three months ago. If it comes to the court, this is false evidence. Wei Wenfan is very angry. Later, he gave feedback to the man about the result of supervision, and explained it for a long time. The village secretary who made the proof also admitted mistakes and criticized himself at the villagers meeting. If the masses are not satisfied with our feedback, we will convene the whole village conference. Because of this, past village cadres did not dare to fail to fulfill their duties. Wei Wenfan said that in the past ten years, we can know clearly one hand in such a case. Source: onion onion people editor: Xun Jianguo _NN7379 A couple of years ago, a couple in the village divorced, the village branch did not carry out a detailed investigation and gave the woman a proof that the man went out for a part-time job for many years. This incident was known to Wei Wenfan. He went to the village to ask about it. The villagers said that the man would return on holidays. He returned to the village three months ago. If it comes to the court, this is false evidence. Wei Wenfan is very angry. Later, he gave feedback to the man about the result of supervision, and explained it for a long time. The village secretary who made the proof also admitted mistakes and criticized himself at the villagers meeting. If the masses are not satisfied with our feedback, we will convene the whole village conference. Because of this, past village cadres did not dare to fail to fulfill their duties. Wei Wenfan said that in the past ten years, we can know clearly one hand in such a case.