How did the Japanese fight against the core of the United States alone?

category:Internet
 How did the Japanese fight against the core of the United States alone?


The industrial development of China and Japan has a common experience, starting from imitation. Computers, televisions, and fridges are all invented by the Americans, and the Japanese have carried them back from the United States, and after all the dismantling, they studied a question: what are the defects of the American production? As a result, the Japanese imitated products are more advanced than the authentic products made by the Americans, and the Japanese hall and the emperors place label MADEINJAPAN. And we Chinese enterprises initially also carry back some products from the United States and Japan, imitates something much worse than original products, and some companies also dare to label made in America and Japanese original because of the money. I would like to point out that this doctrine is a common act in the history of industrial development in the world, but what is the key to it? I can say unpolitely that the Japanese are learning peoples technology to improve their industrial competitiveness, and we Chinese learn the fur of people, but make a lot of money. Some readers are disgusted with the fact that I compare Japan with China and think that I deliberately raise Japan and derogate from China. I understand this kind of antipathy, because in the blood of our Chinese people, we lack a kind of self reflective DNA, we always think that we are right, the wrong one is the others. Even if you are wrong, you will not admit it to death. Because of this kind of inferiority, it is difficult for us to treat others and look at ourselves with a modest attitude. It also leads to the lack of a spirit of excellence. It is often difficult to make fine products. This is the case with chips and engines, which is my most worrying problem. Trump launched the Sino US trade war. The first one to fall down was Zhongxing Telecom, a famous communications equipment manufacturer in China. The collapse of ZTE has taught us the distance between China and the world in the field of chip manufacturing. At the same time, let us wake up: how important it is to master core technology. More than 30 years ago, the United States had launched a trade war against Japan, and also nipped the Japanese neck in the core technology field. How did the Japanese defend the war and how to catch up with the US in the core technology field, especially in the field of semiconductor chips? This is the topic I want to talk to you today. In 1942, the worlds first computer, ENIAC, was born in the United States. It is a 150 square meter and weighs 30 tons of behemoth. The circuit inside uses 17 thousand and 468 electronic tubes, 7200 resistors, 10000 capacitors, 500 thousand lines, and a power consumption of 150 kilowatts (below). Obviously, it is the most intuitive and prominent problem for the computer to take up a large area and be unable to move. How good it should be if we can integrate these electronic components and wires on a small carrier. We believe that a lot of people thought about it and put forward various ideas at that time. Dahmer, a typical scientist at the British Radar Institute, said at a meeting in 1952 that the discrete components in the electronic circuit could be concentrated on a semiconductor chip and a small chip was a complete circuit, so that the volume of the electronic circuit could be greatly reduced and the reliability was greatly raised. High. This is the first idea of an integrated circuit. The invention of the transistor made this idea possible. In 1947, the first transistor was created in the Baer laboratory in the United States. After the invention of the transistor, between 1958 and 1959, Kirby and Noyce invented the integrated circuit, which is the embryonic form of the chip that we usually say. The first computer in the world In 1964, TI company of Kirby proposed to the Japanese government to set up a wholly owned company in Japan to produce chips. Because Japanese companies have not started the production of the chip, in order to cultivate the domestic semiconductor industry, the Ministry of production has procrastinted the application of TI company in Japan. At the same time, the Japanese government began to actively guide domestic enterprises in the research and development of chips and mass production by means of preferential financing and preferential tax policies. TI company decided to refuse the transfer of the basic patents of chips to Japanese enterprises when its sole proprietorship was blocked. The Japanese government is looking for an excuse to delay the application of its chip patent application in Japan, so that Japanese enterprises do not need too much scruples on patent infringement in the domestic production of chips. To curb American companies production of chips in Japan is a way for the Japanese government to protect its semiconductor industry at that time. How to improve Japans Semiconductor R & D technology and compete with the United States is a problem that the Japanese government has been thinking about. Mr. Zhou Cheng, a professor of the history of science and technology at the Peking University, recently wrote that IBM announced the use of an integrated circuit third - generation computer 360 system in 1964. In the same year, the largest computer manufacturer in France was bought by the US Ge Corp. This makes the Japanese government deeply aware of the huge gap in the computer field in its own enterprises, and has determined the determination to protect and nurture the domestic computer industry in any case. After a period of deliberation, the Japanese Ministry of industry and Commerce launched the research on super high performance computer development in 1966. The goal of the project is very clear. It is to develop a high-performance third generation computer that can compete with IBM360 series. The total subsidy granted directly by the Ministry of industry and commerce to the participating enterprises amounted to 10 billion yen. In 1972, the overall study of electronic technology in the Industrial Technology Institute, which belongs to the provincial production province, and the joint efforts of the civil enterprises and colleges and universities, the expected goal was achieved in 1972. But in 1970, IBM developed 370 series of computers using large scale integrated circuits. As a result, Japans Ministry of industry and commerce was forced to launch several computer related large-scale projects, such as the development of image information processing system in 1971. The project has a span of ten years, with a total subsidy of 22 billion yen. However, just as Japan was almost catching up with the IBM370 standard, there was news that IBM would embark on the development of the fourth generation computer future system. This type of computer plans to use M bit VLSI, while Japanese enterprises used IBM370 in the 16K game at the same time as 16Ks LSI. This means that there is a considerable gap between the Japanese integrated circuit technology and the United States, and if it is not possible to make a breakthrough in this key technology, it is impossible for Japanese companies to surpass the IBM. To this end, the Japanese Ministry of general production has set up an agency called electronic intelligence course under the Machinery Information Industry Bureau, which is responsible for planning the development strategy of computer and its key memory. In July 1975, the Ministry of industry and Commerce set up a large scale integrated circuit (VLSI) research and development policy committee, which includes many industries and academics. After the Commission was fully brewed, the province was finally decided to set up a joint research and development organization, which was jointly funded by the government and the civil enterprises in March 10, 1976, the VLSI technical research portfolio. All enterprises participating in the VLSI technology research group are selected by the Ministry of industry and commerce. They are Nippon electric, Toshiba, Hitachi, Fujitsu, MITSUBISHI motors. In addition to the US owned Japanese company IBM, almost all the large semiconductor manufacturers in Japan are covered. At the same time, the province also decided to set up a research base under the research portfolio, a joint research institute, which was composed of the Industrial Technology Institute of the Industrial Technology Institute of the provincial production province and the participating enterprises to send the scientific research personnel. It is the first time that Japan has set up a variety of research portfolios, but it is the first time that competing firms send researchers to form relatively stable research institutes in a portfolio. The greatest achievement of the VLSI technology research group is the successful development of the key equipment in semiconductor processing, which is to reduce the projection lithography device. In order to develop this kind of precision device, the VLSI technology research group will take the lead and set up three independent teams in the joint research institute. Although the three teams have developed different technologies for semiconductor processing devices, they have made significant breakthroughs. These technological breakthroughs laid the foundation for Japan to establish an advantageous position in the field of reducing the projection lithography device and even the whole semiconductor production equipment field. Before the start of the VLSI technology research group, about 80% of the Japanese semiconductor manufacturing equipment was imported from the United States, but all the semiconductor production equipment was domestically made in the mid 80s of the last century, and the world market share of the semiconductor production equipment in Japan was more than 50% by the end of the 80s. In 1980, only 1 of the ten largest companies in the world had the highest sales volume of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, and 5 grew rapidly in 1989. For example, to reduce the key equipment of the projection lithography device as an example, almost all imported from the United States before 1980, but from 1985, Japans international market share exceeded the United States, by 2000, in addition to the AMSL of Holland, the manufacturers of the production and sale of this key production equipment are all the clear Japanese companies. In the process of common research and development, the high precision machining of integrated circuits, the large aperture of the wafer, the rapid detection of the printed circuit and so on are gradually mastered in the process of joint research and development, so the Japanese have made great achievements in the field of memory production. Japanese companies have made further efforts to take 80% of the global market share, forcing a number of American semiconductor companies such as Intel and Motorola to withdraw from the competition in the memory field. As for the research portfolio as the main goal of the development of 1MDRAM, Japanese enterprises seize nearly 90% of the world sales share, far from the US semiconductor manufacturers behind. In 1980, Japans integrated circuit had a favorable balance with the US trade. By 1986, the international market share of Japanese semiconductor products began to surpass that of the United States. In the 80s of last century, the most severe battleground in the Japan US trade war was semiconductors. Nevertheless, with its unique core technology, Japans international market share has always been higher than that of the United States except for a few years in the next ten years. In 1995, the top 10 of the worlds semiconductor enterprises, Japan accounted for 5: NEC (first), Toshiba (second), Hitachi production unit (third), Fujitsu (eighth), and MITSUBISHI electric (ninth). This situation did not happen until 1995 when Microsoft launched Windows 95 and Intel introduced its improved Pentium processor. In twenty-first Century, Japans semiconductor industry failed to change its R & D system in a timely manner because of its lack of complacency. In addition, Japanese electronics companies sold computers and mobile phones, making the Japanese semiconductor industry, especially the production of chips, lags behind the United States. But we see, in recent years, NEC, SONY and Fujitsu as the representative of Japanese electronic enterprises, with the help of the development of artificial intelligence industry, regress chips and related systems research and development, and with the long-term accumulation of technology, making the Japanese AI industry has led the momentum of the world. The arrival of the era of fully automatic driving will usher in a new spring for chip R & D and production in Japan. Japans industrial development has not been plain sailing, and there have been many lessons learned. However, the Japaneses conscientious style of work makes it a long-term accumulation of thick technology. Therefore, I have always believed that the lessons that Japan has gone through has been worth learning and reference from China. Human development will have a lot of common and inevitable road to go, whether Japan, the United States or China, only have their own things, do talent has a foundation. (the writer is the president of Japans Asia News Agency. He was a special correspondent in Japan). The source: first, financial responsibility editor: Bai Xin _NT4464 In twenty-first Century, Japans semiconductor industry failed to change its R & D system in a timely manner because of its lack of complacency. In addition, Japanese electronics companies sold computers and mobile phones, making the Japanese semiconductor industry, especially the production of chips, lags behind the United States. But we see, in recent years, NEC, SONY and Fujitsu as the representative of Japanese electronic enterprises, with the help of the development of artificial intelligence industry, regress chips and related systems research and development, and with the long-term accumulation of technology, making the Japanese AI industry has led the momentum of the world. The arrival of the era of fully automatic driving will usher in a new spring for chip R & D and production in Japan. Japans industrial development has not been plain sailing, and there have been many lessons learned. However, the Japaneses conscientious style of work makes it a long-term accumulation of thick technology. Therefore, I have always believed that the lessons that Japan has gone through has been worth learning and reference from China. Human development will have a lot of common and inevitable road to go, whether Japan, the United States or China, only have their own things, do talent has a foundation. (the writer is the head of Japans Asia News Agency. He was a special correspondent in Japan).