Behind the deposit of sharing bicycles, there are also topics such as capital returns and corporate profits.
More than a month after the problem of deposit refund broke out in December last year, more than 10 million people still queued for deposit refund.
Mr. Yang, who lives in Yangpu District, is one of the ofo users in Shanghai. He provided a screenshot of his refund progress App to Shangguan News of Liberation Daily. He launched a refund application on December 19, 2018, ranking 112387001, and ranked 1085765 on January 19, 2019. It seems that ofo is refunding money, but it only refunds more than 10,000 people every day. At this rate, it will take me almost three years. You say, can I wait? He was discontented but helpless.
In addition to ofo, sharing bicycle brand ride has also exposed the problem of deposit, while some rider employees said that the company has been in arrears for more than months.
Besides the deposit, what about the advance payment? Mr. Cao, an ofo user, also reminded reporters that at present, the outside world is mainly concerned about whether the deposit for sharing bicycles can be collected back, but neglected that there are still many users who overcharge, which may be more or less bad luck.
All these reflect the problems in the management and use of deposit and advance payment in the last cycle of shared bicycle and even in the development of shared economy. In the future, can this problem be solved?
Can deposit-free become a major trend?
Fu Weigang, a researcher and executive director of Shanghai Institute of Finance and Law, believes that the shared economy based on deposit is itself a pseudo-shared economy. From the experience of ofo, we can see that there is no market for the pseudo-shared economy. And the free deposit is the development trend of the shared bicycle and even the shared economy. He said that at present, many sharing economic platforms began to introduce sesame credit grading products to launch deposit-free services. Whatever the way of deposit-free, it is more conducive to the sharing of economic development. Providing services with deposit-free mode is not only conducive to reducing the rental threshold and financial risk of users, but also to promoting the new leasing industry to get rid of the idea of earning by deposit.
Wu Hongyang, deputy director of the Urban Transportation and Rail Transit Research Center of the Academy of Transportation Science, also believes that as the sharing bicycle industry enters a calm period, it is necessary to strengthen the supervision of the funds security of sharing bicycles, so as to ensure the legitimate rights and interests of users and the safety of funds. He said that the reason why some enterprises have difficulty in withdrawing deposits is that they have not established a perfect system of user deposit refund, and set up special accounts for user deposits and prepaid funds. Therefore, in view of the development of the new stage of bicycle sharing, we must attach importance to the security of deposit and prepayment. The regulatory authorities should strengthen the supervision of user deposit and prepayment funds, and guard against the risk of user funds.
However, Wu Hongyang also said that it is not illegal for bicycle sharing enterprises to collect deposits. We support enterprises to exempt deposits, and at the same time, the operating enterprises that collect deposits should strengthen the supervision of funds.
Beware of Capitals Financial Abacus
People from the capital circle disclosed that behind the capital pursuit of shared bicycles, besides being a good innovative concept itself, it is also related to its financial attributes due to the collection of deposits.
One investor, who declined to be named, said that in the eyes of capital, sharing bicycle enterprises are not only leasing enterprises, but also a financial company without a licence: Sharing bicycle enterprises put forward thepay-as-you-gomodel, and capital is completely out of sight. They care about deposits. This amount of money accumulated into a considerable pool of funds. Not to mention that the deposit can be used for the production and operation of enterprises, even for purchasing financial products or investing in some projects, the return is amazing. He feels that the lifeblood of most bicycle companies was maintained in the past, on the one hand, from the continuous investment of financing capital, so that enterprises can burn their money; on the other hand, enterprises rely on the deposit model to form a pool of funds. At present, both of them have problems, so many sharing bicycle enterprises have failed.
However, the investor admitted that the problem has emerged, but for the disposal of deposits in the field of sharing bicycles, there is still no explicit regulation at the level of laws and regulations, unregulated pools of funds, of course, the risk is alarming.
So, is it necessary for financial regulators to supervise deposit accounts for sharing bicycle platforms? If so, how to regulate it?
Peng Kai, a partner of Jincheng Tongda Law Firm, believes that the management of user funds should be a focus at the regulatory level. One of the characteristics of the shared economy is stakeholders, so in the negative situation, there will be two results: one is that the stakeholders interfere with social stability, the other is that the Internet attributes lead to high cost of user rights protection. At present, collecting deposit is a routine operation in many subdivisions, such as sharing bicycles, charging treasures, etc. Strengthening supervision can not shout slogans. Supervision documents need to be upgraded and implemented. He feels that, in the current situation where the clearing and settlement capacity of banks and third-party payment institutions has been greatly improved, there will be no big obstacles in the operation of the deposit management of small and scattered shared economic users. Specifically, we can refer to the supervision of the second-hand housing transaction funds in the second-hand housing market.
Capital speculation and sharing of economic bubbles should be vigilant. We should encourage innovation, but we should not let the public pay for it. What supervision should do is not only the external restraint of seeing him rise from a tall building, but also the prediction of building collapse before and the establishment of exit mechanism. Peng Kai further pointed out that when enterprises burn money crazily, they should think about the implementation of capital supervision. Taking sharing bicycles as an example, most of the enterprises are burning money too much and their profitability is general. In this case, it is only a matter of time for enterprises to finger the deposit. He felt: We should not expect too much from the ethical level of the enterprise, but should be bound by external supervision. At the same time, we should establish an early response mechanism for the withdrawal of deposits or even the withdrawal of enterprises from the market immediately when we anticipate the risks.
Sharing bicycles can also be profitable
In the past development, deposit has become the fragrant steamed bun in the eyes of bicycle-sharing enterprises and even investors. Some enterprises regard it as a profit opportunity to make articles around deposit. But if the trend is that no deposit or deposit is regulated and no misappropriation is allowed, can sharing bicycles be profitable?
Zhu Dajian, director of the Institute of Sustainable Development and Management of Tongji University, believes that the answer is yes. He calculated an account for the reporter: If the cost of a shared bicycle is 1000 yuan, one ride, five turns a day, then the income of a day is 5 yuan, a month is 150 yuan, as long as a few months, bicycle income can cover the cost of bicycle. He believes that the most basic way to share bicycles is to increase turnover rate. The higher turnover rate, the better business returns.
He also said that the issue of shared bicycles should be studied from the perspective of circular economy. Shared bicycles need to conform to the development strategic model of circular economy. The whole life cycle process of manufacturing, operation, scrap and recycling emphasizes circular economy - considering its durability in the manufacturing process, instead of using traditional bicycle materials to design and manufacture. Operating enterprises should clearly share bicycles `not selling bicycles but bicycle services; for bicycles that have reached their life cycle, recycling departments should start recycling, direct disposal of unusable bicycles in the process of disassembly, and recycling process can be used.
However, Zhu Dajian also pointed out that sharing bicycles can be profitable, but not necessarily make a lot of money. Sharing bicycles has the attribute of public goods, how can operating enterprises make a lot of money? If you want to make a lot of money, it means that public goods and services are not provided. For example, expressways are also public goods, and the government will regulate the price of bidding enterprises. The government allows companies operating public goods to have a slight profit, but absolutely not a windfall profit.
It is worth mentioning that from the perspective of enterprises, sharing bicycles can become an important part of their business landscape, and produce greater value through integration with other services. In an investigation conducted by Jiefang Daily Shangguan, the delegation commentary on the purchase of Mobai bicycles announced that it would soon rename the Mobai bicycle as the delegation bicycle, while taking the delegation comment App as the only entrance to use the Mobai bicycle. The reason for this design is that, according to Metros comment, sharing bicycles will become an important part of its Location-based Services (LBS). Besides providing users with the last kilometer solution, it can also be organically combined with the platforms online appointment vehicle, unattended distribution, shop-to-home service and so on to build a business closed-loop. This means that even if sharing bicycles is not profitable or slightly profitable, it can also serve other businesses of the enterprise. The result of accounting is that the operating enterprises are still willing to spend money to operate sharing bicycles.
Source of this article: ShangGuan News Responsible Editor: Shi Jianlei_NBJ11331