Natures website reviews the 2018 scientific events, and Chinese cloned monkeys are on the list.

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 Natures website reviews the 2018 scientific events, and Chinese cloned monkeys are on the list.


2018 is destined to be an extraordinary year. Graphene magic horn opens a new chapter in physics. The emergence of a bone makes us re-examine our past. Hot waves and fires keep coming with grief and fear. The legendary curtain call of the detector is even more sad...

In a report on the 18th, Nature magazines website provides us with an inventory of major events in the field of science this year, which will be engraved in the history of science and technology, whether happy or sad, or angry or surprised.

Graphene magic corner opens the new world of Physics

The surprise of graphene still ripples in the minds of scientists. In March, Cao Yuan, the first author of a paper published in Nature, pointed out that when two layers of graphene were twisted together at a magic angle of 1.1 degrees, they could simulate the superconducting behavior of copper-based materials called copper salts. This new method of superconducting graphene opens up a new research field of physics, which is expected to greatly improve the efficiency of energy utilization and transmission.

Cover pictures suggest Caos discovery of graphene magic horn. Photo Source: Nature

This year, scientists in the quantum field have also harvested a lot of envious eyes. In October, the European Commission announced the first recipients of its 10-year 1 billion quantum flagship project, which covers the fields of atomic clocks and secure communications. Meanwhile, Britain has increased its funding of 235 million pounds for its quantum research and development centre; Germany has pledged 650 million euros for quantum research in four years.

On November 16, delegates voted to redefine four basic units of measurement - ampere, kilogram, Kelvin and Moore. This is the largest reform of the international unit system since 1875. The results of the voting will come into effect on May 20, 2019.

The field of biogenetics is remarkable

In January, Cell magazine reported that two somatic cloned monkeys Zhongzhong and Huahua were born in China. This is the first primate born by somatic cloning technology since the first somatic cloned sheep Dolly was born in 1996. This achievement, independently completed by Chinese scientists, is praised as a landmark breakthrough in the field of life sciences in the world. Experts said that the purpose of cloning monkeys is to establish animal models to help understand the human brain and treat various human diseases.

In September, many scientists were attracted by the discovery of a young woman who lived about 90,000 years ago. The ancient mixed race, Denny, is half Neanderthal and half Denisovan, known as the most fascinating of all humans who have undergone genome sequencing.

Twenty years sharpen a sword. In August, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the first treatment based on RNA interference, which suppresses specific genes associated with disease and is used to treat a rare disease that may damage heart and nervous function.

A fierce patent battle was settled in September. The U.S. Federal Circuit Court of Appeal granted the CRISPR genome editing patent to the Bode Institute, bringing the University of California at Berkeley and its partners into the cold winter.

In July, the European Court ruled that biotechnology acquired by genetic editing would be incorporated into the EUs strict regulatory framework for genetically modified organisms. As soon as the ruling was issued, the European genetic editorsresearch and industry were saddened by the fact that new technologies would not be realized as profits and research funding might be reduced.

Brilliant and Silent on the Space Stage

The world is a stage. All men and women are merely actors. They come to the stage when they come to an end. This sentence also applies on this years space stage: some stories are closing, some stories are just beginning.

This year, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) began developing concepts for space stations near the moon, and plans to work with companies to develop small lunar landers. In December, China launched Change-4, the first soft landing of a spacecraft on the back of the moon in human history.

In August, NASA dispatched the Parker probe to the Sun; in October, Bepi Colombo, Europes first Mercury mission, was launched. The Voyager 2 probe entered interstellar space and began to explore this area for the first time. Japans Falcon 2 visited the asteroid Ryugu, opening the prelude to the first human asteroid sampling mission. In December, NASAs Source Spectrum Interpretation Resource Safety Weathering Layer Identification Detector (OSIRIS-Rex) arrived at the asteroid Benu.

The retirement of many probes has also added a touch of tragedy and sadness to this years space: NASAs Dawn probe ran out of fuel in October; and the Kepler Space Telescope, an exoplanet hunter, ended scientific operations.

The news from Mars is mixed. In June, a dust storm sweeping Mars cut off communications between Opportunity and Earth, and the probes life and death are still uncertain. But the European Space Agency (ESA) Mars Express orbiter reported that a lake might have been found beneath the ice near Marss Antarctic.

We cast our eyes from the sea of stars to the observatory of the earth. In February, two radio antennas in Australia discovered indirect evidence of the first stars in the universe, dating back 180 million years after the Big Bang. The European Space Agencys Gaia probe made another big contribution this year, providing data that produced the most accurate 3-D map of the galaxy so far, deepening human understanding of its evolution.

In July, astrophysicists first traced the origin of energetic neutrinos back to supermassive black holes in distant galaxy centers, helping researchers determine the source of cosmic rays. Scientists believe that some cosmic rays and energetic neutrinos are produced in the same way.

Climate Drought Extreme Weather Frequently Occurs

Extreme weather is frequent in 2018. In July, more than 50 fires broke out in Sweden due to high temperatures and the driest environment in more than a century. In August, the heat wave shifted to British Columbia, Canada, causing it to be in the worst fire season ever. California has not been spared either. According to US media, at least 85 people have been killed by a forest fire in the hilly areas of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, making it the most destructive wildfire in Californias history. To make matters worse, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released a report in October that said global temperatures could rise by 1.5 degrees Celsius in less than 10 years compared with pre-industrial times. In September, Scott Morrison, Australias new prime minister, abandoned a policy to limit carbon emissions from the electricity industry. Scientists say the move shows that the country has abandoned its commitment to the Paris Accord of 2015. China has set up the Ministry of Ecology and Environment to track pollution, enforce environmental regulations and protect endangered species. Source: Wang Fengzhi_NT2541, responsible editor of Science and Technology Daily - China Science and Technology Network

Extreme weather is frequent in 2018. In July, more than 50 fires broke out in Sweden due to high temperatures and the driest environment in more than a century. In August, the heat wave shifted to British Columbia, Canada, causing it to be in the worst fire season ever. California has not been spared either. According to US media, at least 85 people have been killed by a forest fire in the hilly areas of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, making it the most destructive wildfire in Californias history.

To make matters worse, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released a report in October that said global temperatures could rise by 1.5 degrees Celsius in less than 10 years compared with pre-industrial times.

In September, Scott Morrison, Australias new prime minister, abandoned a policy to limit carbon emissions from the electricity industry. Scientists say the move shows that the country has abandoned its commitment to the Paris Accord of 2015. China has set up the Ministry of Ecology and Environment to track pollution, enforce environmental regulations and protect endangered species.