The 65-year-old man, the youngest among the five horses entering Beijing in the early days of the founding of the Peoples Republic of China, served as a senior leading cadre of the Vice-Premier and Secretary-General of the State Council, and has been away from politics for 16 years. Over the years, he has been living in Luoyang. After the overthrow of the Gang of Four, he wrote to the Party Central Committee to lodge a complaint. His wife joined hands with several children to fight for him.
After complaining for more than a year, we are finally going to see a turnaround.
But perhaps what Xi Zhongxun himself did not expect was that this year would be such a special one. His 16-year low will turn here.
Coming out of the mountain
In mid-February 1978, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China notified the Henan Provincial Party Committee by telephone. It was entrusted with the responsibility of a provincial Party Committee leader. Xi Zhongxun was quickly returned to the provincial Party Committee and escorted to Beijing.
Xi Zhongxun was recalled to Beijing to attend the first session of the Fifth CPPCC National Committee held that month. At this meeting, he was elected to the Standing Committee of the CPPCC National Committee.
During the meeting, Ye Jianying met Xi Zhongxun. He said in surprise, Comrade Zhongxun, you have suffered so much that you are still in such good health!
For Xi Zhongxuns work arrangement, there were several schemes, including the Ministry of Seven Machinery, the Ministry of Agriculture, Shaanxi Province and so on. Ye Jianying, who is in charge of Guangdong work, proposed to Hua Guofeng and Hu Yaobang, who has just served as the organizational Minister of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, that Xi Zhongxun should work in Guangdong.
Ye Jianying considered that Wei Guoqing, the first Secretary of the Guangdong Provincial Committee of the CPC and director of the Provincial Reform Committee, was a member of the Political Bureau of the CPC, vice-chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress and appointed director of the General Political Department of the Peoples Liberation Army. Guangdong is the South Gate of China. Its strategic position is very important, and the problems there are more complex. Therefore, Ye Jianying thought of Xi Zhongxun, an old, high-ranking and experienced politician.
Zhang Zhigong, Xi Zhongxuns secretary, once said: Historically, Ye Shuai and Xi did not work together much, nor did they belong to amountain head. But their views on major political issues were often the same, and they had been rectified to varying degrees in the struggle within the Party. They were deeply disgusted withLeftthings, so they were very close emotionally.
After Ye Jianying exchanged views with leaders such as Hua Guofeng and Deng Xiaoping, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China formally decided to appoint Xi Zhongxun to govern Guangdong. Xi Zhongxun took the initiative to say that he hoped to retain Wei Guoqings position as the first Secretary of the Guangdong Provincial Party Committee of the Communist Party of China and serve as the second secretary at his own request.
At that time, Xiao Yaotang, then the Standing Committee of Huiyang Prefectural Committee and Minister of Rural Work Department of Guangdong Province, was studying at the Central Party School. One day after breakfast, Xi Zhongxun came to the Central Party School to visit more than 20 students in Guangdong. Xiao Yaotang told China News Weekly that he and the other students had not received any notice beforehand and felt very sudden.
Xi Zhongxun asked the students to make a brief self-introduction, not too long. After the introduction, Xi Zhongxun said, The Central Committee decided to let me work in Guangdong to guard the South Gate and build the South Gate, but I havent worked for many years and I dont know much about it. But we will surely rely on you and all of you to build the South Gate well.
Xiao Yaotang felt that Xi Zhongxun had a great mind. We know that he has been in trouble for many years and has stood alongside for a long time, but he is not afraid of difficulties, which touches us very much. At the same time, they are also excited. The central government will send its officers to Guangdong, which will undergo great changes.
On April 5, a strong wind and sandstorms raged in Beijing.
With his eldest daughter Xiqiaoqiao and Secretary Fan Minxin, Xi Zhongxun boarded a flight to Guangzhou accompanied by Chen Zhongxuan, then deputy director of the General Office of the Guangdong Provincial Committee.
As soon as Xi Zhongxun arrived in Guangzhou, he rushed to the Guangzhou Friendship Theatre in the afternoon and attended the 4th Congress of the Communist Party of China in Guangdong Province. The next morning, he delivered an enthusiastic speech at the plenary meeting.
I have been raised by northern soil and water for most of my life, and now I am in Guangdong. I have to rely on Southern soil and water for the next half of my life. He said.
This is the first time that Fang Bao, then deputy secretary of Huiyang Prefectural Committee and Secretary of Baoan County Committee, met Xi Zhongxun. He told China News Weekly that Xi Zhongxun had come to Guangdong for the first time and had met all the members for the first time. He did not even need to write a manuscript. What he said was vernacular and plain. Xi Zhongxun also said that he had just arrived in Guangdong. He was not familiar with the situation and might make mistakes. I hope you can correct him. It makes us feel that he and we have a lot of heart to heart.
Shortly after the meeting, Wei Guoqing returned to Beijing, where Xi Zhongxun presided over his work in Guangdong. He focused his main energy on the work of the provincial Party committee. The daily work of the government was freed up by the Secretary of the provincial Party committee and the deputy director of the provincial reform committee, Liu Tianfu.
When he first arrived in Guangdong, Xi Zhongxun was not adapted to the humid and hot climate in the south. At that time, only the Standing Committee of the Provincial Party Committee had air-conditioning in its meeting room, and his office and residence only had fans, sweating all day. After meeting Ma Wanqi, president of Macau China General Chamber of Commerce, he took the initiative to send three air conditioners to the Guangdong Provincial Committee and named one to Xi Zhongxun. But Xi Zhongxun resolutely refused to accept it and asked the Secretary to send the air conditioner back to the reception office of the provincial Party committee.
Xi Zhongxun is an acute son. He once held a democratic life meeting. Wang Guoguo, Secretary of the provincial Party committee, put forward his opinion to him: Comrade Zhongxun, you are too impatient and demanding. You should correct it later. After the meeting, Xi Zhongxun said during a walk with his secretary, Chen Liming, that Premier Zhou was not in a hurry. Premier Zhou had to ask about the implementation before he left work.
Xi Zhongxun, who has not worked for 16 years, always has a sense of urgency in his work. He gets up at five or six in the morning, does not rest at noon, and often goes to bed at two or three in the morning at night. Apart from going to see a movie in Building 11 of Zhudao Hotel on Saturdays, I spent most of the rest of the time at work. He sat on the toilet in the morning and looked at the documents in the evening. Sometimes he asked his secretary, Zhang Zhigong, to read the documents beside him. He often reads the documents and newspapers of the Central Committee, contacts with the leaders of Hu Yaobang and Feng Wenbin (then the first deputy director of the Central Office), and grasps the intentions and trends of the Central Committee in a timely manner.
Xi Zhongxun lives in Building 4 of Pearl Island Hotel, and often presides over the Standing Committee in the conference room of the restaurant 5 of Pearl Island.
Lei Lixing is a journalist of the Political and Cultural Group of the Guangdong Branch of Xinhua News Agency. He often sits in the Standing Committee of the Provincial Committee of the CPC. He told China News Weekly that in his feelings, after Xi Zhongxun came to Guangdong, the atmosphere of provincial Party committee meetings was more democratic and people expressed their views more freely.
Once, Lei Lixings internal reference was sent to the Central Committee by the General Bureau and returned to the Standing Committee of the Provincial Committee as usual. A provincial Party committee leader pointed at Lei Lixing and said, Lao Lei, you are wrong to refer to this article! If you say that the provincial Party Committee has passed unanimously, I have my opinion. When Xi Zhongxun heard this, he said, Whats wrong with Lao Lei? Hes right! Did most of the meetings pass? You didnt say any reservations at last. You cant always bracket your exceptions. The provincial Party committee leader laughed and said nothing more.
When Chen Kaizhi, then deputy director of the Secretariat of the General Office of the Guangdong Provincial Committee, arranged the seats for delegates at the Guangdong Peoples Congress, he still arranged the leadership of the Party in the first row and the democratic parties in the second and third rows according to the old rules. When Xi Zhongxun saw it, he was very angry. He held the seat watch in one hand and said aloud, Do you understand? Who arranged it and what happened? Chen Kaizhi hastened to readjust.
Chen Kaizhi told China News Weekly that at that time, many democratic parties were still under pressure. It was not easy for Xi Zhongxun to do that.
Xi Zhongxun is accustomed to writing reports to the Central Committee on any work. He will report to the Central Committee every other time after he comes to Guangdong. In addition to reporting as soon as they have the opportunity, sometimes they ask Li Jianzhen, the old Red Army and provincial Party secretary, who is familiar with all aspects of the central government, to say, Sister, go and talk about it! Some problems have been decided by the Provincial Party Committee, and he is not confident that he will report them to the Central Committee.
When the central leader comes, he sometimes takes time to personally understand the reception plan. Once, Ye Jianying was going to come to Guangdong to use his car and stay. He inquired one by one and called Yang Shangkun for advice.
Xi Zhongxun took office for only one week. On April 11, 81-year-old Ye Jianying took a special plane to visit and rest in Guangdong and stayed at Nanhu Hotel.
During this period, Xi Zhongxun reported to Ye Jianying his preliminary ideas on Guangdong work. Ye Jianying presented them with six sentences: in-depth investigation and research, making a sound plan, reporting to the central authorities in time, implementing it step by step, prioritizing priorities, and paying attention to secrecy and security. Xi Zhongxun always takes these six sentences as his motto.
Everyone has palpitations, and I have palpitations.
Only a month after his arrival in Guangdong, Xi Zhongxun faced a major political test: a big discussion on the criteria of truth.
On May 11, Guangming Daily published an article Practice is the sole criterion for testing truth, which caused a great discussion sweeping the whole country. At that time, the political situation in Beijing was still not very clear. Red Flag magazine did not make a statement. Deng Xiaoping pointed out sharply: It seems that not involved in itself, may be a kind of involvement.
Xi Zhongxun recognized the importance of this discussion with the keen eyes of politicians. Guangdong media reproduced Guangming Dailys article the next day and began a discussion on the criteria of truth throughout the province. Xi Zhongxun is also the third provincial leader who has publicly expressed his support for Practice is the criterion for testing truth in newspapers.
Xi Zhongxun once said in a reading class for leading cadres above the county Party Secretary of the first phase of the Party School of Guangdong Provincial Party Committee, which opened in March 1979, In that period, we all had palpitations, and I also had palpitations. People have passed through the wind to you earlier, and those leaks are from Beijing. Now you come to another practice that is the only criterion for testing truth?? Some comrades in Beijing met me and said that I had made an early statement about the criterion of truth. If you dont say that people dont know what your attitude is, you will know the truth.
There is no reason why Xi Zhongxun has lingering palpitations. At that time, there was no formal conclusion about the injustice that had been inflicted on him. It was not until August 1979 that the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China approved the Report of the Central Committee on the Fiction of Liu Zhidan and issued the Notice on the Fight for the so-called Xi Zhongxun Anti-Party Group in February 1980 that he was officially rehabilitated.
In August 1978, Xi Zhongxun made a survey in rural Huiyang, Guangdong Province. The left one is Xi Jinping, who came to Guangdong during the summer vacation to participate in social practice activities.
Rectification of style of thinking and work
When Xi Zhongxun arrived in Guangdong, the central government gave him two primary tasks: first, to stop the illegal crossing and second, to solve the food problem.
Chen Kaizhi said that as a big southern province, Guangdong was more difficult than Xi Zhongxun had imagined. In 1978, the growth rate of industry and agriculture in Guangdong Province has been lower than the national average for 14 consecutive years.
Guangdong has just liberated itself as the frontline of national defense, but none of the 156 projects of the first five-year plan is in Guangdong. After the Cultural Revolution, Guangdongs original industries were transferred to the Mainland. Without industrial base, it was very difficult to finance. Agriculturally, Guangdong has a large population, less land, and its grain production is not up to the standard. The grain used in Guangdong should be transferred from Hunan to Jiangxi. All materials must be supplied by ticket. There are 46 kinds of tickets alone.
At that time, I was concurrently the Secretary of the head. The head smoked matches with his ticket. He accompanied the head to the countryside. First, he had to study his addiction to cigarettes. How many cigarettes he would smoke, and he had to count the matches and take them with him. Chen Kaizhi said.
In early June, Xi Zhongxun and the Guangdong Provincial Committee decided to carry out the rectification of the Standing Committee of the Provincial Committee. An important aim of the rectification movement is to mobilize the whole province to solve the food problem.
According to Xi Yuanpings recollections, shortly after Xi Zhongxun arrived in office, he learned that nearly 10 million people in Guangdong were in short supply of food. He was so anxious that he immediately found Mao Zhi, Secretary of the Hunan Provincial Party Committee, to adjust grain to meet his immediate needs. Later, he said more than once, To use the Secretary to help the people of Guangdong! Hearing that Anhui is promoting the rural household contract responsibility system, Xi Zhongxun immediately arranged his wife to go to Anhui to study with Huang Jingbo, who was going to take office in Guangdong. He said that peoples food problem is the biggest problem, as long as it can increase production is a good way.
Xi Zhongxun attached great importance to the rectification of the Guangzhou Municipal Committee. He pointed out that Guangzhou is the heart of Guangdong Province. The quality of work has a great impact on the whole province and even at home and abroad. We must do a good job in Guangzhou.
In July, Xi Zhongxun listened to a report on the work of the United Front. As for the implementation of policies for ethnic industrialists and businessmen, he said that if we want to act in accordance with the Partys policies, the repayment should be made. He was angry to hear that someone had bought the loot at a very low price. He said it was extortion in disguise. Knowing that some counties believed that removing the right-wing hats was not conducive to stopping the escape from Hong Kong, he immediately said that all the right-wing hats should be removed.
In the rectification movement, there were also some different voices. Some peoples speeches have not yet got rid of the influence of the Cultural Revolution and are accustomed to putting the outline on line. As a result, different opinions have emerged, and even some people have lodged complaints with the Central Committee.
After a study by the Central Committee, in August, Ye Jianying entrusted Hu Yaobang to write to Xi Zhongxun and the provincial Party committee, telling them: Comrade Zhongxun went to Guangdong with great boldness, breaking the situation of lethargy and making achievements in his work. We fully support Comrade Zhong Xuns work. If comrades feel any problems, they would like to talk to Comrade Zhongxun directly.
These words conveyed by Ye Jianying are undoubtedly a great support for Xi Zhongxun, who has just resumed his work.
As soon as the rectification meeting of the provincial Party committee was over, in early July, Xi Zhongxun, accompanied by Wang Guoguo, Secretary of the provincial Party committee, and Zhang Hanqing, deputy editor of Nanfang Daily, took a seven-seat white van to Baoan County for investigation. This is Xi Zhongxuns first trip to Guangdong.
Baoan is connected with the First Bridge of Hong Kong (Luohu Bridge) and the First Street of Hong Kong (Sino-British Street). The number of people who flee illegally ranks first in Guangdong. From 1952 to 1977, there were 62,305 people who fled illegally, accounting for 40,598 people, accounting for 18.7% of the total population of the county.
At that time, Guangdong was in a new period of high incidence of smuggling. In the summer of 1978, flight intensified. The whole countrys next economic recovery, but Guangdong has such a serious incident, aroused the high attention of the central government.
Xi Zhongxun got out of the car and did not listen to the report. He took a short rest after dinner and looked around. Fang Bao, then Secretary of the Baoan County Party Committee, first took Xi Zhongxun to Luofangs transit farming gate.
Fang Bao said that due to historical reasons, some fields of Baoan residents were classified into the New Territories of Hong Kong in 1898, so more than 4000 mu of land in Hong Kong belongs to Baoan County. Farmers can farm across the country through seven transit farming ports, going in the morning and returning in the evening. Luofang Farmer, located in Luohu District, was the largest farmer and the area with the most serious border problems at that time.
Xi Zhongxun got out of the car and stepped on the sandy and mud road to the edge of the wire mesh to see the overseas land through the wire mesh. He asked Fang Bao why so much land had been lost.
Xi Zhongxun immediately said, This should be changed and done at once!
As the car continued to drive to Shatoujiao, Xi Zhongxun saw two people handcuffed on the roadside. Fang Bao explained that this was a stowaway caught by the frontier guards. First, it was handcuffed here, and then went on to catch other stowaways. At night, it was placed in a temporary shelter in Liantang and sent away the next day. Xi Zhongxun wanted to get off and ask about the situation. Fang Bao suggested that he go back to the temporary shelter and ask again. Xi Zhongxun agreed.
In Shatoujiao, Xi Zhongxun saw that the stone piers erected in the middle of the street split a narrow Sino-British Street into two parts, with a sharp contrast between the rich and the poor on both sides. On the Hong Kong side, there is a lot of traffic and crowds; on the Baoan side, there are many weeds and few commodities, and there are few shoppers.
At the end of Sino-British Street, there is a plastic flower factory for processing incoming materials. Shatou Town Party Secretary Zhang Runtian reported to Xi Zhongxun that the processing plant had been operating for a quarter with an income of HK$110,000. In addition, the town has introduced several three to one projects, one of which is the glove factory, which receives a processing fee of HK$60,000 for two months and an average monthly income of 900 RMB for workers. He also said that after the recent attempt of the reform and opening-up measures, the residents of the town no longer moved illegally to the British border, even in the past there was a tendency to return.
It was dark when he returned. Xi Zhongxun insisted on visiting the temporary shelter in Liantang. He asked the asylum-takers why they wanted to smuggle. Several people with Chaoshan accent said, Not enough to eat. Xi Zhongxun asked again: Give enough food, still cant go? Answer: Return to go, its easy to find a job there. Every month, there are more than 1,000 yuan of income. You can send money home to build a new house in two or three years.
Before leaving, Xi Zhongxun emphasized to Fang Bao: The construction of foreign trade base mainly depends on what the Hong Kong market needs, what the price is high and how much money you make, what you plant and what you support. As long as production can be improved and farmers can increase their incomes, the state law does not stipulate that they can not do it, they will do it boldly. Dont oppose his doctrine first. There are some good methods of capitalism that we should learn from. What was wrong during the Cultural Revolution in the past must be corrected now.
This trip to Baoan deeply shocked Xi Zhongxun. He heard and witnessed the gap between the Mainland and Hong Kong. He was deeply impressed and had many new ideas.
At the Standing Committee of the Provincial Party Committee, he made a clear statement: the so-called smuggling and fleeing is not a class struggle, but a contradiction among the people. Hong Kong is also the land of China. People cant live any longer. Running to Hong Kong should be called outflow instead of flight.
This remark impressed Qin Wenjun, then Deputy Secretary-General of the Provincial Party Committee and Director of the General Office. He lamented China News Weekly: If you talk directly to people who are fleeing smuggling, you have to talk to Xi Zhongxun.
Lei Lixing told China News Weekly: At that time, smuggling was regarded as treason. Those words like Xi Zhongxun, which nobody dares to say, will be regarded as sympathetic to class enemies.
Xi Zhongxun is keenly aware that we must carry out institutional and policy reforms. He was one of the first leaders to realize that reform was imperative. Chen Hongjun, an inspector of the Party History Research Office of the Guangdong Provincial Party Committee, who has chaired several Xi Zhongxun research projects, told China News Weekly.
A trip to the three eastern districts
In July and August, Xi Zhongxun, who was fearful of heat by nature, ran to 21 counties in Meixian, Shantou and Huiyang of Eastern Guangdong Province in succession, braved the humidity and heat in the south. Xi Jinping came to Guangdong to participate in summer social practice and accompanied his father.
When passing through Longchuan and Heyuan counties in Huiyang area, a group of local county Party Secretary and county governor came to the county border to meet them and then sent them far away. It was common for everyone to take it for granted, but Xi Zhongxun was very disgusted. He thought that this was a kind of injury to the people and their wealth, separation from the masses and bad influence, and demanded that they should be stopped.
The first stop of Xi Zhongxuns trip was Meixian County. At that time, Hu Qida, deputy director of Meixian Prefectural Committee Office, who squatted in the Yanshang Brigade, recalled to China News Weekly that two Beijing jeeps were parked in front of Ye Jianyings former residence at more than 2 p.m. on the 19th. Du Ruizhi, the Standing Committee of Guangdong Provincial Committee of CPC, and former Lu Zhongxun, the Secretary of Meixian Prefectural Committee, got out of the car.
After Xi Zhongxun visited Ye Jianyings former residence, Hu Qida reported to him the situation of the Yanshang Brigade.
Hu Qida said that there were 12 production teams in Yanshang Brigade, carrying out the activities of one team, one hilltop, each production team delimited hilltop reclamation, planting trees, fruit and grain, and also carried out a variety of operations, especially pig raising, which increased the income of members. Pig breeding has popularized the way of public-private partnership, and the production team has given the pig farmers a certain amount of rice, and the pig farmers have raised the pigs to hand over a certain quantity of pork. This method collectively makes profits and is very popular.
Hearing this, Xi Zhongxun praised Hu Qida for his work and earnestly grasped it. He demanded that the hometown of Ye Shuai beloved by the whole nation be carefully built.
Meixian County is located in a mountainous area. Xi Zhongxun wears a straw hat, holds a Pufan, pedals black cloth shoes, rolls trousers legs, and crosses mountains. He greeted the masses. Some people saw the great leader shaking hands with him. He also shook hands with him. He instructed the local cadres to say, The most urgent task now is to let the masses have enough food and pocket money.
According to Chen Kaizhi, these grassroots investigations have helped Xi Zhongxun form a new way of thinking for Guangdongs development: he hopes that the central government will give Guangdong greater support, allow Guangdong to absorb funds from Hong Kong, Macao and overseas Chinese, and introduce advanced technology and equipment from Hong Kong.
By the end of that year, dozens of projects had been introduced from Hong Kong, with nearly $40 million in funds. Among them, the same Hong Kong merchant cooperated in the production of electronic watches, which will be completed and put into operation within 40 days.
On October 1, Xi Zhongxun visited Shajiao Commune in Shunde County.
Later, Li Ziliu, who served as director of the Guangdong Special Administrative Region and mayor of Guangzhou, was then Secretary of the Shunde County Party Committee. At that time, the Shunde County Committee was conducting a pilot project of large-scale biogas operation in Shajiao Commune. Xi Zhongxun noticed the incident keenly and made a special inspection.
Li Ziliu told China News Weekly that, in his view, Xi Zhongxun had a strategic vision, a firm will, dare to say and do, and the right things were bold and popular. He could be said to be one of the representatives of emancipating the mind in the reform and opening up.
In June 1979, the Guangdong Provincial Committee convened a three-level cadre meeting. Xi Zhongxun conveyed the request of the Central Committee that Guangdong should take the first step in the reform and opening up. Xi Zhongxun, Ye Jianying, Xu Shiyou and Yang Shangkun (from left to right) came hand in hand to the participants.
Mai Zicans Letter of Criticism
Shortly after his trip to the three eastern districts, Xi Zhongxun received a letter of criticism. The letter was written by Mai Zican, a cadre of Huiyang District Procuratorate, on September 25.
At the beginning of the letter, he said, I am not familiar with you, nor have I met you. I have only heard your speech and only seen your instructions published in the newspaper. But from the above contacts, I feel that you are still a person who likes to listen to reports, listen to beautiful words and talk big.
He said that Xi Zhongxun praised Huiyangs Tonghu rectification project many times for its good performance, but in fact, the project destroyed the production teams of several neighboring communes and actually blew a communist wind. At present, its important to save the people. Dont carry out big projects that cant be saved by far water.
Didnt you often say harsh things in your speech and say,Good medicine is good for the mouth and good for the disease? Now give you two harsh opinions, see if you are Gong Ye Haolong! uuuuuuuuuuu It says at the end of the letter.
Mai Zican himself did not expect the letter to be sent to Xi Zhongxun smoothly. On October 18, Xi Zhongxun personally answered Mai Zicans letter: Comrade Mai Zican: Your letter of September 25 is very good. He has put forward very pertinent opinions on the problems existing in the current mental state and working style of our leading bodies at all levels, especially those responsible for cadres. I sincerely accept it and decide to forward your letter to all places in order to further promote the democratic atmosphere within the Party. Get up.
Shortly afterwards, Xi Zhongxun wrote an open letter to the party committees at or above the county level and the people in charge of the provincial direct bureau, requesting that the letter from Mai Zican be forwarded and discussed together with his reply.
He said: Comrade Mai Zicans criticism of me is a powerful criticism of the bad style of seeking truth from facts and divorcing from the masses that still exists in our Party. We should make us sweat hard and wake up?? We should not proceed from reality, do not follow the mass line, rely on the will of the senior officials, rely on Administrative orders, suppress the disagreements of the masses and act on our own will. This bad style of work has developed seriously over the years. But some of our comrades do not realize the seriousness of this problem, and they are more poisonous than poisonous.
Grasp grievances, falsify and wrongful cases and rectify them
At the beginning of Xi Zhongxuns arrival in Guangdong, it has become one of the focal points of provincial Party committees work to eliminate unjust and false cases. His secretary, Jia Yanyan, recalled: According to the specific requirements of Secretary Xi, the Department of the provincial Party committee that I visited most during that period was the office of letters and visits, and the work that I went out most was copying large-character newspapers.
Xi Zhongxun personally seized the anti-Peng Mei Incident and Li Yizhe Incident and other large cases. Lei Lixing participated in the reporting task from beginning to end. On average, almost every case had to squat for three months. He told China News Weekly that under the influence of the two generalities thought at that time, there was a great resistance to the Anti-injustice and false and wrong cases in Guangdong, and the more grass-roots, the stronger the objection. If Xi Zhongxun wants to open up the situation, he must break through the major cases.
One morning in July, Chen Ping, then a cadre of South China Agricultural University, was notified to go to the Pearl Island Hotel and someone wanted to talk to her. She felt so sudden that she didnt know if it was a good thing. After arriving at the Pearl Island Hotel, she was arranged to wait in a room. It wasnt long before Xi Zhongxun came in.
This is Chen Pings first meeting with Xi Zhongxun. At that time, she did not know Xi Zhongxun, but when Xi Zhongxun first came to govern Guangdong Province, she heard the well-informed people around her say, If only this old comrade had come, he had different feelings towards the family of the old cadres, and there was hope for the unjust case of Peng Jia.
Chen Ping is the wife of Peng Hong, the three sons of the martyr Peng Mei. She told China News Weekly: During the Cultural Revolution, our family suffered and waited ten years for the wrongdoings until Xi Zhongxun came to govern Guangdong. He has compassion for the old comrades, because it is all hard work that makes today possible.
In late August 1968, Peng Hong was taken to Haifeng to fight. More than a dozen days later, the news came that he feared crime and committed suicide and abandoned himself to the Party and the people. The Chen Ping family never believed that Peng Hong committed suicide. Peng Yina told China News Weekly that her father once told her and her brother Peng Dan, If someone says that his father committed suicide, you must not believe it. Dad would never do that.
Shortly after the incident, Chen Ping began to write letters of complaint to the Central Committee and the Guangdong Provincial Committee. Only 7-year-old Peng Yina saw her mother writing letters from an early age. When she grew up, she helped her mother carve steel plates and print letters of complaint together. But letters have been sinking into the sea.
The petition letter in Xi Zhongxuns hand was sent again by Chen Ping a few months ago. He told Chen Ping, The Peng familys case is well known all over the country. I have received your letter. You can rest assured that the Central Committee and Guangdong Province will check it thoroughly.
Xi Zhongxun also had a note from Zhou Enlai in his hand. In 1973, Zhou Enlai personally authorized Ye Jianying to thoroughly investigate the Peng case. In 1974, Ye Jianying sent people to Guangdong to investigate and deal with it, which was resisted by many parties. Before Xi Zhongxun went to Guangdong to take office, Ye Jianying gave Zhou Enlais approval to him face to face.
Under the supervision of Xi Zhongxun, the Guangdong Provincial Committee, the Provincial Reform Committee and the Guangzhou Military Region Party Committee sent a joint working group to assist the Shantou Prefectural Committee in thoroughly investigating the Haifeng anti-Peng Mei martyr incident.
Despite the support of the Guangdong Provincial Committee, the work of the investigation team was not smooth. Lei Lixing said that after the investigation team was stationed, the local and county committees at that time created a lot of resistance. During the discussion, they would find various reasons to prevaricate, such as the death of Peng Hong as suicide.
Chen Ping listened to the old cadres who were in Haifeng prison with Peng Hong. Peng Hong was in solitary confinement in the prison at that time. On the night of September 1, 1968, he was taken away. In the nearby building of the Public Security Bureau, the sound of shouting, beating and screaming lasted until late at night. A veteran cadre peeped through the window. Several people carried Peng Hong, who could not move, on the bedplate and threw him back to his cell. Late the next night, two farmers carried his body away.
In early November, in order to find out the cause of Peng Hongs death, the working group decided to open a coffin for autopsy.
It was a cloudy morning. Chen Ping and Peng Yina watched the coffin open. Peng Hongs corpse had all decayed. His skull leaned to one side and his mouth was wide open. Pennina felt that it was her father who was crying out for wrongs. She remembers that a forensic autopsy after the coffin was opened found to have broken three ribs, which became one of the direct evidences of the investigation teams final determination of Peng Hongs death as persecution to death.
It has been said that the Peng case can not be put right against Zhaoxue, otherwise it will be submitted to the Central Committee of the Party. Xi Zhongxun patted the table: If you dont appeal, youre a bastard!
On November 10, the Haifeng County Committee held a memorial meeting for Peng Hong to fight against the snow for Peng Jiaping.
After the case was resolved, Peng Yina, as the last group of educated youth, was transferred to the library of Jinan University under Xi Zhongxuns arrangement. Xi Zhongxun sent Yang Yingbin, Director of the General Office of the Guangdong Provincial Committee, to Chen Pings home at South China Agricultural University. He found three people crowded into a small house and sent someone to help them build a small attic. Peng Yina studied in this attic for three months and was admitted to the Department of Journalism of Jinan University.
The Li Yizhe case is another major case in which Xi Zhongxun presided over the anti-corruption campaign.
Since August and September 1978, the Guangdong Provincial Committee has studied the case of Li Yizhe several times and reported it to the Central Committee. In the end, it was agreed that Li Yizhe was not a counter-revolutionary group and that their big-character newspaper On Socialist Democracy and Legal System was not a reactionary big-character newspaper and should be put to rest.
From January 24, 1979, in a month, Xi Zhongxun talked ten times with Li Zhengtian, Chen Yiyang, Wang Xizhe and Guo Hongzhi (Li Yizhe is their collective pen name). Sometimes he even talked about 3 oclock in the morning, and the contents of the talks were more than 300,000 words.
Chen Yiyang told China News Weekly: Xi Zhongxun is a very good man. He speaks very honestly. Solving problems takes care of all aspects. Its not easy. He has experienced so many hardships himself. I admire him very much. I personally appreciate him. In addition to the anti-corruption, he later asked us what our personal requirements were. I said I liked the library very much. He told the staff concerned to arrange me to go to the library of the Academy of Social Sciences.
Xi Zhongxun also devoted great energy to the anti-regionalism in Guangdong.
Chen Kaizhi said, Reviewing anti-localism is inseparable from Xi Zhongxuns vision and courage.
Once, when Gu Dacuns wife Zeng Shiwen met Xi Zhongxun, she asked him, Do you know that someone said you overturned the case for localism? Xi Zhongxun answered, You know, there are two possibilities. One is that I was pushed out of Guangdong, and the other is that I was able to bring about an anti-regionalism campaign.
At several meetings of the Standing Committee of the Provincial Committee, consensus on this issue has never been reached.
One morning, while walking along the Pearl River, Xi Zhongxun met Zhuangtian, deputy commander of the Guangzhou Military Region. Zhuangtian asked Xi Zhongxun about the progress of anti-regionalism. Xi Zhongxun said that there was great resistance. He hoped that Zhuangtian would carry out guerrilla warfare and cooperate with the work of the provincial Party committee.
Zhuangtian organizers wrote a series of articles and published them in the local media and Peoples Daily, which aroused great repercussions and promoted the anti-Feng Gu anti-Party alliance case.
Xi Zhongxun remained concerned about the progress of the case after he was transferred to the Central Committee. In 1983, under the care of Chen Yun and Huang Kecheng, anti-localism in Guangdong lasted for nearly 30 years and was finally completely eliminated.
In August 1978, Xi Zhongxun addressed the Standing Committee of the Huiyang Prefectural Committee of Guangdong Province. On the one hand, he resolutely stopped smuggling and fleeing. On the other hand, he adjusted policies and paid more attention to the development of economy and the treatment of both symptoms and symptoms.
Breaking through the Obstacles of Planned Economy
Shortly after Xi Zhongxun arrived in Guangdong, he received letters from the citizens containing 50 cents of fish tickets that could not be cashed.
At the entrance of the Transportation Section of the Provincial Party Committee, there is a small stall for selling fish and meat. It is necessary to queue up early and buy by ticket. Some old people line up at 3 or 4 a.m. and others use bricks and stools to occupy seats. In order to conduct market research, Xi Zhongxun went to queue at more than 5 a.m.
He realized that the implementation of the policy of unified purchase and marketing led to the scarcity of commodities in the market. He decided to liberalize the prices of non-staple foods and vegetables, and take price reform and circulation activation as breakthroughs in economic system reform.
He said at the meeting of the provincial committee: Guangdong is a land of fish and rice in spring all the year round. There is no fish to eat in the land of fish and rice. Thepeeled fish(rubber fish) bought in the past were used as fertilizer and scattered in the ground. Now they are all fragrant baboons. We must emancipate our minds. Socialism is not poverty. We must improve our living standards as soon as possible.
Since autumn, Guangdong has gradually narrowed the scope of unified purchase and marketing, and implemented floating prices within a certain range.
On December 25, Guangzhou took the aquatic product market as a breakthrough point and set up the first state-owned River fresh warehouse among its counterparts in the whole country. It carried out production and marketing meeting, followed by a free market for salted fish, pond fish and seafood. After the price of aquatic products was liberalized, the masses had different opinions and debates, but the provincial Party committee did not terminate.
Since the second half of this year, some grass-roots social teams in rural areas of Guangdong have secretly implemented the output contract responsibility system, but nobody dares to say so publicly.
One evening, Xi Zhongxun returned from Conghua and found Xue Guangjun and Yang Yingbin, deputy governors in charge of agriculture. He said that he had seen from Conghua that two brigades were experimenting with the output contract responsibility system. The effect was very good. He asked if it could be popularized. Yang Yingbin and Xue Guangjun have explained the historical experience of Zhouxin Experience.
From 1962 to 1965, the Zhouxin Commune of Qingyuan County implemented the responsibility system of field management to increase grain production. However, during the Cultural Revolution, the Continental Experience was repeatedly criticized as a black goods of revisionism.
Hearing this, Xi Zhongxun said, As long as we can increase production, its a good way. What are we afraid of? These two brigades have been approved to continue their experiments, and I am responsible for the mistake.
He said that grassroots cadres have fear of wealth, fear of right and fear of making mistakes. We should support cadres: You are doing right!
Chen Kaizhi told China News Weekly: Xi Zhongxuns explanation is very specific, because he was born as Secretary-General and worked with Premier Zhou. He has a temper, some things will rush out a few words ofnonsense, but some things are also very patient. Ma Yipin, Secretary of the Shaoguan Prefectural Committee, disagreed with the idea of contracting production to households, saying that the revolution would be in vain. Xi Zhongxun did not order immediate implementation. Instead, he gave him time to think about it and wait for it to happen. Therefore, Shaoguan is the last to carry out contracted production to households.
Chen Hongjun, inspector of the Party History Research Office of the Guangdong Provincial Party Committee, told China News Weekly that at that time the thoughts of cadres and the masses were still imprisoned, and that socialism and capitalism were at odds and there was no fire or water. Xi Zhongxun took the lead in innovation under such an environment. He has the firm belief of the older generation of proletarian revolutionaries, the grasp of the basic Marxist views, and the forthright and forthright people in northern Shaanxi, who do not believe in evil, regardless of personal gains and losses.
Participation in the Central Working Conference
In October, the Guangdong Provincial Party Committee received a notice from the Central Office about the convening of the Central Working Conference, requesting Xi Zhongxun, who presided over the work of the Provincial Party Committee, and the person in charge of industry and agriculture to attend the meeting.
Xi Zhongxun attached great importance to the Central Working Conference, which he had not attended for many years. The new ideas on Guangdongs development formed in recent research should also take this opportunity to report to the central government and seek support.
In April and May 1978, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council sent three delegations to Western Europe, Japan and Hong Kong and Macao respectively. Wang Guogu, Secretary of the Guangdong Provincial Committee in charge of economy, participated in the Chinese government delegation headed by Vice Premier Gumu of the State Council and visited five Western European countries. After returning to Guangdong, Wang Guoguo, an eye-opener, reported to Xi Zhongxun and others, and the Guangdong Provincial Committee was inspired. Through Guangzhou, the Hong Kong-Macao inspection team also briefed Xi Zhongxun and other party and government leaders in Guangdong Province on the investigation. It was suggested that Zhuhai and Baoan should be built into two export commodity bases, which coincided with the idea of the Guangdong Provincial Committee.
Xi Zhongxun presided over four meetings of the Standing Committee of the Provincial Party Committee to study and draft the report materials for the Central Working Conference. It was not until November 8 that the outline of the report was finalized.
On November 9, Xi Zhongxun, Wang Guoguo, Secretary of the provincial Party Committee in charge of economy, and Xue Guangjun, Standing Committee of the provincial Party Committee in charge of agriculture, went to Beijing to attend a 36-day central working conference.
The meeting place of the Central South Group is in Conference Room 14 of Jingxi Hotel. This is a relatively active group, and Xi Zhongxun, Xue Guangjun and Wang Guoguo are all active members of the group.
Wang Guofang read a letter to Hua Guofeng and the Political Bureau of the Central Committee at the meeting, demanding that the truth standard be solved at the meeting, which is a matter of general interest. Twenty-four of the 29 participants in the Central South Group signed the letter. This undoubtedly has a great impact on the conference process.
On December 9, Wangs representatives, Xi Zhongxun and Xue Guangjun, made systematic comments. This speech can be said to be a systematic summary of Xi Zhongxuns new ideas on reform.
The speech pointed out: The chaotic situation in the Cultural Revolution is not an inevitable law under the socialist system. In fact, this is an early question of Mao Zedongs theory of launching the Cultural Revolution - the theory of continuing revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat.
In view of the current economic development, the speaker suggested three major measures: first, to import hundreds of tons of grain more for peoples rest and livelihood; second, to make more use of foreign capital and invest more in agriculture, fuel, electricity and transportation; third, to continue to raise the prices of agricultural by-products and raw materials, and so on.
The speech also pointed out: We hope that in the course of reform, we can strategically emancipate our minds and be bold enough to break through the small-scale peasant economy and the old Soviet system. Now the document under discussion is not enough to let go, dare not give more powers to the local government, and expand the rights and interests of enterprises is more abstract.
Finally, they earnestly hope that the Central Committee can give full play to Guangdongs advantages and make greater contributions to Guangdong. At present, we feel tied to death and cant do anything. We hope this problem can be solved.
At the meeting, Xi Zhongxun also proposed the establishment of a central secretary-general.
On the evening of Dec. 10, the meeting informed the groups that they were planning to discuss the personnel issues of adding Chen Yun, Deng Yingchao, Wang Zhen, Hu Yaobang as members of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee and Xi Zhongxun as by-election members of the Central Committee. Some people think that the members of the Politburo, except Hu Yaobang, are somewhat older and unable to do their best. Therefore, they put forward the proposal of establishing the Central Secretariat.
In his speech on December 11, Xi Zhongxun expressed his full agreement with the proposal to establish a central secretariat. If we cant do it at once, we can first consider setting up a working group dealing with daily affairs, with Hu Yaobang as Secretary-General, and hope that this plenary session of the Central Committee can solve this problem.
Many people applauded Xi Zhongxuns proposal. The Central Committee adopted this proposal and appointed Hu Yaobang as Secretary-General of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (and Minister of Publicity) on December 25 to handle the daily work of the Central Committee.
On December 11, the Central Committee further adjusted the personnel of the Guangdong Provincial Committee and decided that Xi Zhongxun should be the first Secretary of the Guangdong Provincial Committee of the CPC and the director of the Provincial Reform Committee, while Yang Shangkun should be the Second Secretary of the Guangdong Provincial Committee of the CPC and vice-director of the Provincial Reform Committee.
They can be said to be old acquaintances. During Xi Zhongxuns tenure as Secretary-General of the State Council for nearly 10 years, Yang Shangkun has been the head of the Central Executive Office. They have a lot of contacts and cooperation in their work. They also stood aside before the Cultural Revolution and have many common languages. The two teams have undoubtedly laid a more favorable chess game for Guangdongs reform and opening up.
In his speech at the closing of the Central Working Conference on December 15, Ye Jianying mentioned Xi Zhongxun in particular when he talked about promoting democracy. He said that this spirit of not afraid to listen to harsh opinions, encouraging others to speak and daring to criticize oneself was valuable and worth learning from everyone.
On December 18, the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the Communist Party of China opened. In accordance with the opinions on personnel arrangements at the Central Working Conference, the plenary held additional and by-elections for the Political Bureau and the Central Committee. Xi Zhongxun was added to the Central Committee.
Therefore, this is Xi Zhongxuns key year, but also Chinas key year. The curtain of reform and opening up is slowly unfolding. Xi Zhongxun himself will also be a pioneer in the reform of killing a bloodline.