Canadians like to say that the United States is our closest military ally, and Americans often say that.
The two countries are in the same military alliance (NATO), often in international military intervention operations in and out and have the longest common border in the world.
But this close military relationship is not ancient. On the contrary, at the beginning of its birth, the United States and Canada used to be a life-and-death relationship.
The White House was burned. It had something to do with the Canadian militia!
In fact, Canada and the United States have always been happy enemies.
During the colonial era, France and Britain took Quebec City and Montreal in Canada as the centre to administer and control the colonies of North America that later belonged to the United States; during the Anglo-French War, the colonies that later became the thirteen states of the United States stood on the British side and fought fiercely on Canadian territory today, including Washington, the father of the country, during almost all the period of the North American War of Independence. During the North American War of Independence, the United States attacked Canada twice in an attempt to destroy the British rear and attract the defeated Quebec French to join the war. Unexpectedly, the choice of the French was just the opposite, and the Canadian militia, with the help of the British army and the Iroquois Indian tribes allied with Britain, twice repelled the American attack.
After the independence of the United States, the United States and Britain signed the Jay Treaty in 1795. The United States recognized the border between the United States and Canada in exchange for British recognition of the independence of the United States. However, Jefferson and other leaders of the American Independence Movement strongly opposed the Jay Treaty. In their view, the treaty allowed Britain to retain a strong military presence on the side of the United States. The United States should take the initiative to attack Canada and drive the British out of North America. In their view, many Canadians would like to join the United States of America, and the war would be very easy with the United States. The army won and ended.
In 1812, the U.S. military attacked Canada, but unexpectedly met with the tenacious resistance of Canadian militias, so progress was slow. After that, the British took advantage of the time gained by Canadian militias and Iroquois Indians to mobilize a large number of reinforcements from Europe and captured Washington in August 1814, when the White House was burned by the British (half of them Canadian militias), and after the war (1817) it had to paint the walls with white paint to get its name.
As a result of the war, the United States defeated the Iroquois of its own land and relieved worries. Canada maintained its territorial integrity in this battle.
Canadians resisted the United States because the North American War of Independence drove a large number of Anglo-British factions to Canada and changed the Canadian national and linguistic structure (from the majority of French-speaking population to the majority of English-speaking population). The British gave more autonomy to French-speaking people in exchange for the unity of Anglo-American and French-speaking people, while the existence of a large number of Anglo-British factions allowed Canada. Instinctively, the United States resisted the invasion resolutely. As a result of the war, Canada was further united as a whole, laying the foundation for future autonomy.
Although the battle was actually fought mainly by British forces, Canadians did not think so. Since February 1815, when the Treaty of Ghent was signed and the border between the United States and Canada was free from war, they celebrated year after year the Militias victory over the United States by Canada. Of course, the United States also believes that this war, which they call the Second War of Independence, was won by them and celebrated with high-profile celebrations every year.
Do you remember CNNs report on June 6 this year? Reported that on May 25, President Trump and Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau had a quarrel, Trumps attitude was tough, and he refused to give in. Trudeau was very angry about this. He asked how can we use national security as a pretext to raise taxes on Canada. The implication was that Canada could not pose any threat to the national security of the United States. To Trudeaus surprise, Trump uttered a historic phrase: Isnt our White House burnt white in Canada? Thats the history above.
Many historians point out that the war of 1812 was strictly a war between the British and the Americans. Canada had not yet gained autonomy. It would take another 53 years for this autonomy to be obtained. The invasion of Washington was theoretically all British soldiers (although half of them were said to have been born in Canada). Not only that, although the Americans glorified the war as the Second War of Independence, in fact, the United States was the first to declare war. It was the United States that first invaded the territory of the other side. The United States had already gained independence. It was certainly not to help Canada achieve independence, but to bring Canada into the territory of the United States. In fact, as early as the first North American War of Independence, the United States Continental Army, which had not yet been completely independent of the British army, had desperately attacked Canada. In a word, Americans are the first to enter the territory of the other side to fight. Even if Canada was born 53 years later, the White House whitening can only say deserve it.
British younger brother should be happy, the turning point only after World War II
Since then, Canada and the United States have been silent. But until World War II, Canada, keen to go abroad to participate in the war, still preferred to be regarded as a British younger brother, including World War I and World War II, in which Canada participated in almost all the foreign wars in which Britain participated, and paid painful sacrifices and costs. As for the foreign war of the United States, Canadas attitude is still respectful and distant. Some historians believe that this is largely due to Canadas self-belief that it was fooled by the United States when dividing its territory along the Pacific coast, and therefore some disagree with it.
The turning point came after World War II. Britain consumed too much during World War II, declined rapidly after World War II, and the United States rose in its place. Canada quickly saw this trend, and immediately began to turn to the United States, a upstart neighbor that had never been looked up to. On April 4, 1949, Canada joined NATO headed by the United States, and became a member of the chariot of the United States.
On June 25, 1950, when the Korean War broke out, the United States took the lead in organizing the so-called United Nations Army to participate in the war. In addition to the United States and South Korea, 15 countries sent troops to participate in the United Nations Army, and Canada was one of them, ranking fifth in all 17 countries. According to historical records, Canada participated actively in the war: on the evening of June 27, that is, only two days after the Korean War started, the Canadian Federal Cabinet held an emergency meeting and decided to join the United Nations military sequence to intervene in the Korean Civil War.
Canada was the first member of the United Nations Army to decide to participate in the war. At the time of deciding to participate in the war, resolution 84 of the United Nations Organization of the United Nations Army interfering in the Korean Civil War had not been adopted. That is to say, until July 7, the name of the United Nations Army did not exist, but the Canadian Federal Army had been involved in the war in advance. On June 27, the Canadian Federal Cabinet decided to Dispatch Naval and air forces to the war before Parliament formally authorized the dispatch of troops. On August 7, the Canadian Federal Cabinet, authorized by Parliament, decided to send additional ground troops to combat, in addition to the naval and air forces.
The number of destroyers of the Royal Canadian Navy increased to 12 at most, but after the volunteers joined the Korean War, there was no large-scale naval battle or landing anti-landing war between the two sides. The Royal Canadian Air Force only invested 426 transport squadrons and never entered the Korean War. However, some Canadian pilots participated in the Korean air combat in the formation of the United States Air Force and the Royal British Air Force.
As a foreign country ranked third only after the United States and Britain in the number of United Nations Army troops in the Korean War, the Canadian army initially dispatched 5403 troops. After 1952, the number of ground troops increased to 6146, plus the naval and air forces, totalling 7720 people. As of July 27, 1953, the two sides ceased fighting. Canada had invested 26791 troops, of whom 309 were killed, 1055 were injured and 30 were missing. Two of the captives were still stationed in South Korea until 1955. The actual number of redundancies was more than the above data. According to incomplete statistics, the total number of Canadian soldiers killed during the Korean War was 516.
When Eisenhower roars, Canada trembles.
The Korean War was a turning point in Canadas transformation from British younger brother to American younger partner.
Britain had previously recognized the Peoples Republic of China on January 6, 1950, and the two countries soon established diplomatic relations at the agency level. Negotiations on the establishment of Canada and New China also went on smoothly at about the same time. During the War of Resistance Against Japan, we made active efforts to recognize Dong Biwus former Canadian Ambassador to China, Lonning. But after the Korean War, Canada quickly changed its attitude. Instead of participating in the war and continuing to establish diplomatic relations with China as Britain did, it turned to follow the trend of the United States.
After the Korean Armistice, with the efforts of Foreign Minister Pearson, who later became Prime Minister, and Langning mentioned above, China and Canada were already close to establishing diplomatic relations. But after the Geneva Conference in 1954, then Canadian Prime Minister St. Laurent felt guilty before setting up diplomatic relations with China and felt that we should say hello to the President of the United States. He and Pearson borrowed the opportunity to meet in Hot Springs, Virginia, to inform President Eisenhower of the decision.
Whats the result?
Eisenhower was furious and roared at the idea of inconceivable and ridiculous. He claimed that public opinion is against the Communist Party of China. If Canada takes the lead in recognizing China, then France, Belgium, Italy and other NATO allies will follow suit one after another. As a result, China will return to the United Nations without any suspense, and in the end, China will return to the United Nations. Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council occupy a place, and this is absolutely unacceptable to the United States Government. Eisenhower even threatened that the United States would not hesitate to withdraw from the United Nations and kick United Nations Headquarters out of New York if the chain reaction did occur.
Eisenhowers rage of thunder made two Canadians shudder at the thought of an international alliance that went bankrupt before World War II. Woodrow Wilson, the former president of the United States who first advocated the League of Nations, was not allowed to participate because of his dissatisfaction with the Paris Peace Conference. As a result of the absence of the United States from the League of Nations, the organization lacked representativeness from the beginning, and eventually lost its authority in the ceaseless quarrels among the powers. Neither St. Laurent nor Pearson dared bear the serious consequences and responsibilities of Canadas willfulness to promote the United States Cup against the United Nations. After returning home, they had to dispel the idea of mutual recognition and establishment of diplomatic relations with the Peoples Republic of China, and even once again interrupted their secret contacts with China in the third place.
In fact, Canada was sold by the United States. The United States itself has not interrupted its secret contacts with China in Poland, Switzerland and other third places. Later, despite Canadian feelings, it engaged in Kissinger diplomacy, finally forcing the Canadian government to make up its mind to establish diplomatic relations with New China in the era of Old Trudeau (Pierre Trudeau, now the father of Prime Minister Trudeau).
North American air defense integration, Canada has no airspace since then
To return to the truth, since we have followed the United States, we will inevitably neglect the Big Brother of Britain. In 1956, Britain and France attacked Egypt in the Second Middle East War. In the past, Canada not only sent troops to help, but also participated in peacekeeping as a neutral country. For this reason, Foreign Minister Pearson won the Nobel Peace Prize. It is not other countries that are leading peacekeeping operations, but the United States, which intends to take advantage of your illness to kill you and completely replace Britain as the worlds hegemony.
On May 12, 1958, Canada agreed with the request of the United States and jointly established the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) to prevent Soviet bombers and ballistic missiles. The main mission of the Command is to monitor all manmade aircraft over North America (including in space); to detect, identify and alert the governments of the two countries of all aircraft, missiles and space aircraft that may attack North America; to organize the control and surveillance of North American airspace; and to organize the defence of North American airspace. The headquarters is located in Cheyenne Hill, Colorado, USA. The headquarters is headed by Americans and the main force is American fighter planes, missiles and radar.
Critics point out that after the establishment of NORAD, Canada has virtually no airspace. In fact, Canada had a fairly good aviation industry strength, but the integration of air defense was quickly fooled and lame by the United States.
In 1958, Canada developed the CF-105 fighter plane, which is known as not losing its advanced nature until the 21st century, and it is unimaginably hoped that this fighter will be equipped not only with Canada, but also with the U.S. Air Force. As a result, fearing that Canadians would grab a job and be independent in the United States, a lot of extra-curricular tactics were made, which eventually led to the yellowing of a promising project called the Canadian Dream by Canadians. Until September 28, 2006, some unwilling Canadian elderly also copied a CF-105 and sent it to the museum, lamenting that the independence of Canada has vanished.
Since then, Canada has had to accept American fighters and endure all kinds of difficulties. Former Canadian Prime Minister Harper announces to withdraw from the F-35 fighter project in a fit of pique. As a result, he can only continue to repair and use the previous generation of American fighter F-18. He even has to import retired second-hand mobile phones of the same type from Australia and break them into parts for repairs.
Since then, although the Canadian army has occasionally been a little awkward (such as refusing to participate in the Vietnam War and providing only logistical support), it has largely participated actively in most of the joint military operations launched by the United States around the world, such as the Gulf War, the Afghan War and the Syrian War. Anti-war sentiment in Canada is much higher than that in the United States. Many Chinese question that American war is very important to us, especially in Afghanistan, which is the most controversial war. However, several Canadian governments have not hesitated to let their troops leave Afghanistan until the Americans themselves announce their withdrawal.
Following Americas little companions sometimes makes too far jokes. On September 7, 2012, when the United States and Iran argued over the nuclear issue without warning, Canadian Foreign Minister Bernard Babbitt suddenly announced the break-up of diplomatic relations with Iran, and made many heated remarks. But the dispute between Iraq and the United States soon fell silent. The United States itself did not withdraw from the Treaty of Friendship between the United States and Iraq on Economic Relations and Consular Rights signed by Iran during the Balevi Dynasty (1955), which was torn up by Trump on January 3, 2018.
The clay man is also earthy. If you dont believe it, please see the attack map.
Although the same trend, but small partners is not a little ideas do not exist.
There is a conflict of interest between the United States and Canada in the Arctic Ocean and the Arctic. The United States has always claimed that the ice is not territorial sea. If calculated in this way, many northern territories of Canada will become high seas. In 2006, Harper, who had always been pro-American, went to the Arctic Circle to parade in person and threatened to build 12 armored icebreakers and deploy a strong army in the Arctic. However, the strong army proved to be a stepped-up platoon afterwards. Only in 2017 did the 12 icebreakers serve in three areas. Canada could only hold its nose and continue to act as a strong army. Little Partner.
In fact, Canada has a more impressive ambition: to attack the United States. It also dates back to the days when Canada was comfortable with being a little brother of Britain.
At the beginning of last century, the Canadian Federation received information that the United States, which was very powerful at that time, was quietly formulating a war plan to invade and conquer Canada. In response, the Canadian Ministry of Defense was very nervous and organized a group of young and vigorous school officials and lieutenants to study countermeasures. James Buster Sutherland Brown, a lieutenant colonels staff officer, proposed a bold plan to defend by attacking, that is, once an attempt to invade the United States is discovered, attack the United States first.
According to Browns conjecture, once the United States invades, it will have both East and west, and three routes of attack: the East will be the main direction of attack, aiming at Montreal, Canadas largest city, and Toronto, the second largest city at that time, Hamilton and Ottawa, the commercial center; the West Road will be the direction of restraint, and the goal is Vancouver; and the middle road will be the Calgary strongholds of the three provinces of grasslands. If the Canadian army cant resist the advantageous U.S. forces, Browns plan is to concentrate the Canadian Armys main force on the western front, surprisingly attack Seattle, Portland and Spokane before the U.S. attack, and attack Fargo and Niagara Falls in the middle. If it is successful, it will turn to Minneapolis. The Eastern Army will face the main force of the U.S. Army. We need to take a defensive stance, but if there is a chance, we should take the initiative to attack Albany.
In addition, the Canadian Navy and Marine Corps should not be idle, but should adopt circuitous tactics, landing in Maine behind the United States front. Browns intention is not to occupy a part of the United States territory for a long time, but to take advantage of the US militarys inaction to disrupt the rhythm of the United States war, to destroy as much as possible the transportation and logistical facilities necessary for the advance of the United States military, and then quickly retreat to the Canadian homeland defense. According to Browns idea, such a proactive attack could prolong the time for Canadian troops to resist the US military offensive, so that Britain, the sovereign country of Canada, would have enough preparation, ease of reinforcement, and ultimately rely on British aid to repel the US invasion.
Although this plan is called crazy suicide plan by most decision-makers, some generals believe that Canada cant be an opponent of the United States in the conventional way anyway, so take a risk. With the support of these generals, the Brown Plan was officially included in the Ministry of Defense plan on April 12, 1921, codenamed Defence Scheme No. 1.
Brown is not an armchair staff member. In order to realize his fantastic idea, he mobilized many colleagues in disguise to infiltrate into the scheduled battlefield in the United States in the five years after the plan was made in 1921, to carry out on-the-spot investigation, and to join the investigation ranks personally. It is said that these Canadian soldiers made a lot of jokes in the United States (for example, they used the bar as the focus of information gathering in accordance with the Civil War practice, but at that time the United States was prohibiting alcohol, and they almost immediately became a prominent target of concern in the bar), and the effect of the investigation was not satisfactory.
Since then, due to the rapid approach of Anglo-American relations, in 1928, under British pressure, the Canadian Chief of Staff, Andrew McNaughton, ordered the cancellation of the Defense Department Plan 1 on the grounds that the United States will not invade Canada.
But it is ironic that the United States did have a WarPlan Red plan to invade Canada, but the plan was formulated in 1930 two years after the end of Canadas Defense Department Plan 1. That is to say, when Canada was ready for the invasion of the United States, the United States had no intention of invasion, and Canada believed that the United States would not invade the South Hills. It was precisely the invasion plan.
Even more ironic is that the Red War Plan invasion determination, and Browns speculation is very different. The main target of the United States is Halifax, Canadas largest military port in Nova Scotia. After that, the United States threatened the major cities in eastern Canada with the benefit of the port and forced the latter to sign an alliance under the city. That is to say, the three routes of U.S. Army in Browns conception do not exist at all, and the direction of the East Route is full of twists. Once the two sides implement their own invasion plans, the result is that the harassment of the Canadian army goes into an unmanned situation, but there is no interference or restraint to the subsequent attacks of the U.S. Army.
The Red War Plan was not terminated until the outbreak of World War II in 1939. Canadians did not know about it until the United States decrypted it in 1974. This caused a great disturbance. I wonder if some of the Canadian officers who were still alive at that time participated in the Brown Plan would take a breath of cool air.
Source: Responsible Editor of Reference Message Network: Shi Jianlei_NBJ11331