Scientists have allowed pig brain to survive in vitro for 36 hours, but may have been unconscious.

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 Scientists have allowed pig brain to survive in vitro for 36 hours, but may have been unconscious.


The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recently held a meeting aimed at investigating the ethical issues raised by the US Neuroscience Center in exploring the limitations of brain science. In this event, Yale University neuroscientist Nenad Sestan (NenadSestan) revealed that his team led 100 to 200 pig brains obtained from the slaughterhouse, which successfully restored blood to the pigs brain through a system composed of pumps, heaters and artificial blood (helping to keep body temperature). Ring function. The brain in a bucket There is no evidence that these somatic brain regained consciousness. However, in Seth Tans unbelievable and unexpected results, one billion of the single cells in the brain were found to be healthy and able to operate normally. In his interview, he declined to elaborate, but he said he had published the results in academic journals and did not intend to make his comments public. However, since last spring, more and more scientists and bioethicists have begun to discuss Yales research, which involves a major breakthrough in restoring microcirculation, including the oxygen flow in the capillaries deep in the brain. These brains may be damaged, but if their cells are alive, it is a living organ, said Steve Hyman (SteveHyman), director of psychiatry at the Cambridge Institute of research in Cambridge, Massachusetts. This is the extreme of this technical know-how, but it is not very different from protecting the kidneys. Compared with the technique of preserving transplant organs such as the heart or the lungs, Hayman says, the similarity is that it may lead to many people mistakenly that this technique is a way to avoid death. Hayman said, people may no longer say, freeze my brain , instead, they ask for pick me up and find me a body. Hayman said this desire is wrong, at least for now. He believes that it is almost impossible to transplant a brain to a new body. The Yale University system is called BrainEx, which consists of connecting the brain to closed pipes and tank loops that circulate a red perfusion in the pipes and tanks that can transport oxygen to the brain, cerebellar arteries and deep areas of the brain. In a report to the National Institutes of health officials and ethics experts, he said this technology is likely to apply to any species, including primates. Researchers at the Yale University began to study the technology about four years ago and seek funding from the National Institutes of health. They hope to build a complete map of the connection between human brain cells. Some of these connections may span vast areas of the brain, making it easier to track in intact organs. He admitted that doctors at Yale University had asked him whether brain protection technology was used in medicine. The human brain, he says, may turn into a mouse, which is used to test exotic cancers and Alzheimers, which are too dangerous to be used in living people. This device, dubbed the brain in a bucket, will soon cause serious ethical and legal problems if it is tested on humans. For example, if a persons brain is activated in the body, will the person wake up in the room without ears, eyes, or communication in the room that eventually feels completely deprived? Does anyone retain their memory, status or legal rights? Can researchers conduct moral dissection or processing of such a brain? In the comedy movie TheManwithTwoBrains of 1983, there was a scene in the jar of the brain. Although these are the material of jokes, medical ethicists are taking seriously the preservation of brain. In addition, as federal security regulations apply to humans, not death organizations, the US Food and Drug Administration will be suspicious of scientists who can try such a regeneration procedure. Even if there are no brains in the box, there will be many strange problems, said a consultant who declined to be identified by the National Institutes of health. I think a lot of people will start to go to slaughterhouses, get pig heads, and study the results. Sestan said he was concerned about how the technology would be accepted by the public and his peers. He said: people are easily fascinated by this technology, and we must remain vigilant. Equivalent to a state of coma As we all know, a coma brain can survive for at least a few decades. The same is true of brain dead patients. Their families choose to keep them dependent on survival devices. However, there are few previous explorations of artificial brain maintenance. There had been a similar attempt, including a 1993 report on rodents, but the team was the first to use large mammals to achieve it, not using cryogenic technology, and to achieve such a pleasant result. Initially, the Yale research team was not sure whether there was an external brain (exvivobrain), that is, to restore blood circulation and restore consciousness. To answer this question, scientists used electroencephalography (EEG) or electrodes placed on the surface of the brain to examine signs of complex activity in pig brain. These devices can receive brain waves that reflect brain activity, which indicates that the brain has thoughts and feelings. Sestan said they initially believed that the signal had been found, which made them excited, but later decided that the signals came from nearby equipment. But these organs now say that the brain waves produced by these organs are in the same coma as people, and the brain tissue itself looks very good, and after being dissected, the cells can produce a seemingly normal surface form. Because if there is damage and cell death, the lack of more extensive electrical activity may cause irreversible damage. About four hours after the pig was decapitated, the brain was connected to the BrainEx device. However, this may also be due to the increase in blood substitutes from the Yale University team to prevent swelling, which also severely inhibits the activity of neurons. You have to understand that a lot of channel blockers are used in our solutions, which may be why we dont get any signals, explained you have to understand that we have used many channel blockers in our solutions. Sestan can imagine that the brain can survive indefinitely and can try to regain consciousness. But they have chosen not to try because this is an unknown field. The animal brain is not aware of anything. I am very confident about it, said Mr. Although I am concerned about how the future technology will be used by others. Suppose someone has accepted this technology to make it better and restore someones brain activity. This is the restoration of human consciousness. If that person has memories, I may collapse completely. Brain experiment Consciousness is not necessary for scientists to experiment with brain connections in the living brain. Anna DeVoe (AnnaDevor), a neuroscientist at the University of California, San Diego, said: the brain activity recorded by EEG is a flat line, but a lot of the rest of the brain is running. Devo is very familiar with Yale research. She believes that for those scientists who are committed to building the brain map, living brain is very good. The whole problem of death is a gray zone, she said. But we need to remember that the isolated brain is different from the other organs, and we need to treat it with the same degree of respect for animals. Today, in the journal Nature, 17 neuroscientists and bioethicists, including the ethicists, have published an editorial that the human brain tissue experiment may require special protection and rules. They found three kinds of brain substitutes that could cause concern, including brain organs (brainorganoids, rice - size nerve tissue), human animal chimeras (mice implanted in the human brain tissue), and in vitro human brain tissue (exvivo, such as excised brain blocks in the operation). They also put forward a series of ethical safety measures, such as injecting drugs to animals with human brain cells so that they can maintain a state like a coma. Hayman also signed the letter. He said he was very reluctant because he thought that most situations were exaggerated or impossible. He said that a tiny brain organ is almost impossible to feel or think about anything. Hayman believes that there is a type of research that may need to be moved quickly to formulate relevant rules. Hayman said: if people want to keep the human brain alive, this is a more urgent and realistic problem. Considering that preservation of live pig brain has become possible, there should be relevant rules to preserve human brain tissue. (small)