It is reported that Change-4, launched at the end of 2018, will land in the Aitken Basin near the moons Antarctic, becoming the worlds first spacecraft for landing and patrol exploration on the back of the moon. It will carry out lunar topography, geomorphology and geological structure, mineral composition and chemical composition, lunar interior structure, lunar space and lunar surface environment exploration near the landing site on the back of the moon by means of onboard Chinese and surgical instruments, and complete the morphology and mineral composition detection and research of lunar back patrol area, lunar base low-frequency radio detection and research. Astronomical observation and research, exploration and research of the shallow structure of the lunar back patrol area and other detailed scientific objectives are expected to achieve original results in interplanetary shock wave, coronal mass ejection and space propagation mechanism. Change-4 is expected to achieve three major feats: the first human probe to visit the back of the moon; the first human spacecraft to relay communication between the Earth and the Moon at 2 oclock in Lagrange; and provide scientific research platform for scientists on the back of the moon, and obtain a number of important original scientific research results. In addition, China is also carrying out the demonstration of establishing a lunar research station in Antarctica, envisioning the establishment of long-term energy supply, autonomous operation, unattended lunar infrastructure, and the development of scientific research and technological experiments based on robots. Indias Lunar Ship 2 lunar probe will be launched by an orbiter, a lander and a lunar rover. Its mission is to demonstrate and verify the soft landing capability on the moon, to map and analyze the surface of the moon in mineral and geological aspects, to verify and confirm the results of Lunar Ship 1 exploration, and to explore whether there is water on the moon. Among them, the lunar orbiter will fly around the moon at a height of 100 kilometers from the lunar table. It will carry five scientific instruments to draw detailed three-dimensional images of the lunar surface.
Sketch Map of Moon Survey Intelligent Lander in Japan
In addition, South Korea plans to launch its first lunar probe, the experimental lunar orbiter, with the US Falcon 9 rocket by 2020. It weighs about 550 kilograms and is equipped with five kinds of scientific detection equipment developed by Korea and American cameras, such as high-definition camera and lunar gamma-ray spectrometer. The United States will also provide communication and navigation technology support for Koreas experimental lunar orbiter. Thereafter, South Korea will launch a lunar orbiter and a lunar lander. In recent years, Russia has announced many new plans for lunar exploration, landing on the moon and even stationing on the moon, but for financial reasons, it has not yet implemented a lunar exploration plan. In 2024, ESA plans to build the first lunar base, Lunar City, at the Shackleton Crater in the Antarctic Moon, as a new space base after the decommissioning of the International Space Station. It will use cutting-edge technologies such as 3D printing and inflatable living cabin, which can accommodate up to four astronauts at a time. To this end, Europe plans to send a lunar rover to the South Pole of the Moon to play a front stop for the construction of a lunar base.
The United States plans to launch a manned lunar orbiting flight in 2021, then cooperate with Russia to establish a deep space gate, the Lunar Space Station, and eventually cooperate with many countries to launch a manned lunar landing, laying the foundation for manned landing on Mars.
Diagram of the Lunar Space Station Deep Space Gate