Manned spaceflight is the development of space technology to a higher stage, because astronauts can accomplish more complex space development work, such as conducting a variety of scientific research, production and military activities, including experiments, experiments, processing and observation; in addition, they can perform various on-orbit services, including maintenance, upgrade of spacecraft, replacement of components and observation. Fuel injection.
Space is rich in resources, but the environment is very bad, so manned spacecraft must be developed to imitate the life of the earth. Up to now, human beings have developed three kinds of manned spacecraft: spacecraft, space station and space shuttle. They can also be divided into two categories according to their purposes and flight orbits. Spacecraft and space shuttles belong to one category and are used as space-to-Earth transporters, mainly for receiving astronauts and cargo. Space station belongs to another category, which is a long-term space science and technology building running in space, not returning to the ground, mainly for scientific research, production and use in space. Rail services.
Therefore, the development of spacecraft or space shuttle is the premise of building the space station, because without the means of transportation between heaven and earth, astronauts can not live and work in the space station. At present, due to the high cost and high risk of space shuttles, spacecraft has become the only means of transportation for manned space-to-Earth travel. Chinas manned space development strategy is also the first to break through and master manned spacecraft technology. To this end, 11 Shenzhou spacecraft have been developed and launched, 11 astronauts have been sent into space successively, and mastered two key technologies of manned spaceflight, space walking and space rendezvous and docking, for the construction and operation of future space stations. Laid the foundation.
The Shenzhou spacecraft is nearly 9 meters long and weighs about 8 tons. It can carry up to three people. Its reliability is 0.97 and the safety of astronauts is 0.997. The spacecraft can fly independently for 7 days and dock for 180 days. It consists of 13 subsystems, which cover dozens of disciplines such as physics and medicine. The overall level of these systems reaches the level of the third generation manned spacecraft in the world.
Shenzhou No. 2, No. 3 and No. 4 all contain simulated human, which can simulate important physiological parameters of astronauts, such as oxygen consumption, pulse and so on. It is an innovation of our country to replace animals with simulated human load and test manned status of spacecraft.
Schematic diagram of Shenzhou VII astronauts extravehicular activities
On December 30, 2002, China launched Shenzhou IV unmanned spacecraft. It is the most perfect unmanned test spacecraft in our country. The spare landing site, land and sea emergency rescue system all participated in the flight test and assessment. It added the function of autonomous emergency return and designed eight life-saving modes. It also improved the yaw maneuverability of the ship and the manned environment in the cabin.
On October 15, 2003, China launched Shenzhou V, the first manned spacecraft, and made the 241st flight in the history of manned spaceflight in the world, making Yang Liwei the 428th astronaut to enter space in the world. The spacecrafts astronaut seat has been further improved, and a variety of safety lifesaving modes and more than 100 failure countermeasures have been set up. It proves that our spacecraft has the conditions for manned space flight.
On October 12, 2005, China launched Shenzhou VI manned spacecraft to send Fei Junlong and Nie Haisheng to the sky. The new changes are as follows: the number of people ranges from 1 to 2; the number of days ranges from 1 to 5; the first time the astronauts opened the door of the return capsule to enter the orbital module; the first time the two astronauts took off their spacesuits for scientific experiments; the first time the environmental control and life support subsystems were fully activated, such as the food cabinets, electric heaters for hot meals, sleeping bags and taiwan. Empty toilets; the variety of space food has also increased from twenty or thirty to forty or fifty.
On November 1, 2011, China launched Shenzhou 8 unmanned spacecraft. Together with the Tiangong-1 target aircraft, it completed the unmanned automatic rendezvous and docking test in space for the first time in China, and began to finalize the production of spacecraft.
Sketch of rendezvous between Shenzhou 10 manned spacecraft (right) and Tiangong 1 target spacecraft
On June 16, 2012, China launched Shenzhou 9 manned spacecraft to send Jing Haipeng, Liu Wang and Liu Yang to the sky. It achieves several first: the first hand-controlled rendezvous and docking; the first verification of the manned environment support technology of the assembly; the first assessment of the spacecrafts hand-control system; the first flight of 13 days; the first opening of the Tiangong No. 1 hatch door for astronauts; the first sending of female astronauts to the sky and so on.
On June 11, 2013, China launched Shenzhou 10 manned spacecraft to send Nie Haisheng, Zhang Xiaoguang and Wang Yaping to the sky. The biggest difference between it and the previous spacecraft is that it has made its first practical flight and circle flight.
At present, China is still developing a new generation of manned spacecraft, which will have a wide range of uses, manned, reusable and other characteristics.